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Transcript of Globalization
In Finland the answer is "YES!" What Is Globalization? Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology. Globalization Globalization is not new. For thousands of years people have been buying from and selling to each other in lands at great distances, such as famed Silk Road across Central Asia that connected China and Europe during the Middle Age. There are planty of controversies surrounding globalization. Is it the integration of economic, political, and cultural systems across the globe? Or is it the dominance of developed countries in decision-making, at the expense of poorer, less powerful nations? Is globalization a force for economic growth, prosperity, and democratic freedom? Or is it a force for environmental devastation, exploitation of the developing world, and suppression of human rights? Does globalization only benefit the rich or can the poor take advantage of it to improve their well-being? Globalization has created the need for global citizens that have a keen awareness of the political, economic, social, and environmental concerns of our time. Our inter-connected world demands that we not only have an understanding of our country, but an understanding of nations, cultures, languages, and religions around the globe. As Dr. Curtis J. Bonk, Professor of Instructional Systems at Indiana University, pointed out in The World is Open, “Anyone can now learn anything from anyone at anytime.” a globalized economy now requires going beyond traditional modes of education that create a well informed, trained, and motivated workforce. Although many think of public schools when discussing education, private schools and multinational corporations are playing a dynamic role in meeting the demands of those seeking education around the globe. We will take a look at the impact of globalization on education through different lenses. 1 First, Let's take a look at global education through the lense of private sectors. 2 Now let us take a look at public sector. 4 Lastly, let's take a look at governmental policies regarding education. More and more students are choosing to pursue their higher education in the United States. This trend has created significant economic impact. In the entrepreneurial mind, with new challenges
arise new opportunities to create profit. Education is business. Many multi-national and private companies have stepped in to fill growth in the the need of global education. Educating 100 million people worldwide,
Pearson is a global leader in educational
publishing. Just as Pearson, the international
scope of McGraw-Hill is easily recognizable. The Apollo Group, a private company that owns University of Phoenix and Phoenix University Online, is providing opportunities for distance learning around the globe. Launched in 2004, Kaplan U. now enrolls 66,000 students, most of which are online. As a recent advertisement for Kaplan University emphasizes “it is time for a different university.” Information and communication technology has
had a profound impact on global education. This
can best be seen through the emergence of digital,
distance, and virtual learning that is available at all
levels of education. Judging from the increases in enrollment, it appears that the Apollo Group and Kaplan, Inc are providing a highly demanded service. However, the dual mission of education and profit is not without controversy as many in academia are critical of the quality of education these institutions are providing. In a world where social, political, economic, and environmental issues seem to transcend borders in nano-seconds, students must be adequately prepared to react. The challenge for public education systems is how to create a holistic, inter-disciplinary approach that gives students skills as well as the ability to adapt these skills to fit a range of challenges. The goal of public education is to help students develop an understanding of the interdependence among nations in the world today, clarified attitudes toward other nations, and reflective identifications with the world community Simply put it: The goal of global education
is to create global citizenship. Defining Global Citizenship “citizens in this century need the knowledge, attitude, and skills required to function within and beyond cultural communities and borders.” The International Baccalaureate (IB) curriculum is a world renowned program that involves more than 3,050 schools, 861,000 students, teachers, parents, and personnel in 139 countries The IB mission is to:
Develop inquiring, knowledgeable and caring young people who help to create a better and more peaceful world through intercultural understanding and respect. . .These programmes encourage students across the world to become active, compassionate and lifelong learners who understand that other people, with their differences, can also be right. Developed by the International Schools Curriculum Project, the rigorous IB curriculum delivers a global education, or as referred to by IB an “international education,” through some of the following criteria: developing citizens of the world in relation to culture, language and learning to live together.
fostering students’ recognition and development of universal human values.
equipping students with the skills to learn and acquire knowledge, individually or collaboratively, and to apply these skills and knowledge accordingly across a broad range of areas.
providing international content while responding to local requirements and interests.
encouraging diversity and flexibility in teaching method.
providing forms of assessment and international benchmarking. Comparing the criteria of the IB curriculum with the goals of global education, it is of little wonder why many look to IB as a yardstick in creating global citizens and a 21st century workforce. Schools are increasingly looking to incorporate the IB curriculum, or at least components of it, into their own teachings. 3 The role of Civil Society and
International Organizations Civil Society and International Organizations are playing an increasingly large role in the development of education systems and advocacy of global education. Organizations such as the World Bank and the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) are working with developing nations to provide funding and expertise. From 1990 to 2009 the World Bank lent over US$7.64 billion for 337 education projects with higher education components in 106 countries. Beyond higher education, the World Bank also supports projects for primary, secondary, and information communication technology education. Another international organization working to promote access to education is the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). UNESCO also partners with numerous multinational corporations to help achieve its goal to bring education to all. Such as Microsoft, Intel, and CISCO to provide consultation, partnerships, technology, and funding for projects. In addition to international organizations, in the past twenty years the world has seen a tremendous rise in non governmental organizations (NGOs).There are thousands of NGOs around the world, here are a few exsampls. Educational International (EI)
Representing nearly 30 million teachers worldwide, EI advocates for an improved status and welfare of those working in education, as well as the right of students to publicly funded and regulated systems of education. Global LAB: Learning Across Borders
provides students and educators with cultural immersion and community service opportunities. They believe that “international experience is a fundamental component of global education and citizenship in the 21st century and should be available to all, regardless of financial need”. Women’s Global Education Project:
Founded in 2002, the Women’s Global Education Project believes that everyone is entitled to an education, regardless of gender or economic status. Women’s Global is working to provide access to education and develop training programs that empower women and girls to build better lives and foster equitable communities The United States recognizes education as a vital tool in maintaining competitiveness abroad and economic security at home. The United States also views education as a measure of foreign policy. For this reason, the US State Department oversees the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. The work of the Bureau is to “foster mutual understanding between the people of the United States and the people of other countries to promote friendly, sympathetic, and peaceful relations, as mandated by the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchanges Act of 1961. Foreign students represent a particularly lucrative opportunity because one can charge them higher fees than can be legally charged to domestic students. Every region of the world has at least one major host country where students flock to in order to receive a world-class education. We have looked at global education through a business perspective, both for-profit and not-for-profit, as well as through a theoretical and governmental lens. Global education have become systems of mutual dependency and responsiveness. We are seeing new education structures emerge, simultaneously creating new solutions and new challenges in learning. The introduction of virtual and digital education transcends not only classrooms, but geopolitical borders; challenging the traditions of a system that have been in place since perhaps the beginning of time. The blending of local, national, international, public and private enterprise should create a fascinating transformation of education systems and standards around the world as economic globalization creates new demands from workers. Dr. James A. Banks, Professor of Diversity Studies and Director of the Center for Multicultural Education at the University of Washington, Seattle. References:
The Levin Institute The State University of New York
http://www.globalization101.org/index.html Much like the United States, China is reaching out to develop educational partnerships with other nations and foreign educational institutions. China is also acknowledging the role in privately-run schools to help fulfill China’s education needs. In 2005, a law was passed on the promotion of privately run schools. With 1.17 million educational institutions services a total of 318 million students in 2002, such initiatives are necessary in order to lessen the immense burden on the Chinese government of providing education. The United Kingdom has long been considered an attractive destination for foreign students, a tradition dating back to the days of the Empire. In today’s world, the UK remains a top choice because of the benefits of its English-language instruction, historically reputed universities, and policies designed to encourage foreign attendance. International students can be a lucrative source of income for UK universities, as students who come from outside the EU have to pay more for courses than their European peers. In total, £1.88 bn of UK universities' income came from non-EU students in 2007/08, while government research grants accounted for £1.76 bn. The number of international students in China nearly doubled from 110,844 in 2004 to 223,500 in 2008. The number of U.S. students jumped 2.35 times and that of European students 2.29 times. One major reason is the emergence of Asia as the power engine of the world economy, but more crucial is a rapid rise in the quality of education offered. Present by- Wei Liu