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Atomic Theory Timeline

Ahiliya Nat, Renee Sung, and Sherry Luo P3 Williams Honors Chemistry
by

S. Luo

on 18 September 2013

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Transcript of Atomic Theory Timeline

Atomic Theory Timeline
Leucippus
Plato
Born: c. 428-427 B.C.E.
Died: c. 348-347 B.C.E.
Religious/ Ethnic/ Cultural Descent: Greek
Greatest Contribution to Chemistry: (350 B.C.E.) Plato identified the known elements of the time (fire, air, water, earth, and cosmos) as solid shapes known today as "Platonic Solids". THEORY
Sir J.J. Thomson
Born: December 18th, 1856
Died: August 30th, 1940
Religious/ Ethnic/ Cultural Descent: White, English, Anglican/Episcopalian
Greatest Contribution to Chemistry: (1897) By EXPERIMENTING with a cathode-ray tube, J.J. Thomson DISCOVERED the electron.
Hantaro Nagaoka
Ahiliya Nat, Renee Sung, and Sherry Luo
Dr. Williams Period 3
Born: Early Fifth century B.C.E.
Died: Fifth century B.C.E.
Religious/ Ethnic/ Cultural Descent: Ionian Greek
Greatest Contribution to Chemistry: Leucippus was one of the first people to develop the THEORY of atomism* (date unclear).
*Atomism- the concept that everything is made of atoms
Fire
Air
Water
Earth
Cosmos
Born: August 15th, 1865
Died: December 11th, 1950
Religious/ Ethnic/ Cultural Descent: Japanese
Greatest Contribution to Chemistry: (1904) Nagaoka created an early planetary model of the atom. The two key features of the model are: (1) a large nucleus (2) and electrons revolving around the nucleus, similar to the structure of Saturn. THEORY
Robert A. Millikan
Born: March 22nd, 1868 in Morrison, Illinois
Died: December 19th, 1953 in San Marino, California
Religious/ Ethnic/ Cultural Descent: American, Unitarian
Greatest Contribution to Chemistry: (1909) Millikan performed his famous Oil Drop EXPERIMENT to measure the charge and mass of an electron. He also verified Einstein's photoelectric equation. He won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1923.
Ernest Rutherford
Born: August 30th, 1871 in Brightwater, New Zealand
Died: October 19th, 1937 in Cambridge, England
Religious/ Ethnic/ Cultural Descent: White, New Zealand
Greatest Contribution to Chemistry: (1911) Rutherford performed his gold foil EXPERIMENT which helped him discover the proton and that atoms consist mostly of empty space. He discovered the neutron while working with Niels Bohr. He also DISCOVERED alpha and beta rays. He worked with Thomson and studied the effects of X-rays on gases, which later led to Thomson's discovery of the electron. He won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1908.
Wolfgang Pauli
Born: April 25th, 1900
Died: December 15th, 1958
Religious/ Ethnic/ Cultural Descent: White, Austrian, Agnostic
Greatest Contribution to Chemistry: (1925) Pauli's most famous DISCOVERY, the Pauli exclusion principle, states that no two electrons in an atom can be in the same structure at the same time.
Schrödinger
Schrodinger:
Born: August 12th, 1887
Died: January 4th, 1961
Religious/Ethnic/ Cultural Descent: White, Austrian, Roman Catholic
Greatest Contribution to Chemistry: (1926) His developments in mathematical equations led to the electron cloud model. THEORY
"Plum-pudding" Model
Werner Heisenberg
Born: December 5th, 1901
Died: February 1, 1976
Religious/ Ethnic/ Cultural Descent: White, German, Lutheran
Greatest Contribution to Chemistry: (1927) Heisenberg published his Uncertainty Principle, which states that it is impossible to know the exact location and velocity of a particle at a given time. THEORY
Gold Foil Experiment
Rutherford Model
Electron Cloud Model
John Dalton
Born: September 6th, 1766
Died: July 26th, 184
Religious/ Ethnic/ Cultural Descent: White, British, Quaker
Greatest Contribution to Chemistry: (1808) He created the first atomic THEORY. It states that (1) elements are made of atoms (2) different elements have atoms of different sizes and masses and (3) atoms cannot be created, divided, or destroyed.
Born: 460 B.C.E.
Died: 370 B.C.E.
Religious/ Ethnic/ Cultural Descent: White, Ancient Greek
Greatest Contribution to Chemistry: He THEORIZED that atoms are indivisible, meaning that they can not be divided into a smaller form. He said that atoms were impenetrable and that their density is proportionate to their volume (date unknown).
Albert Einstein
Born: March 14th, 1879
Date of Death: April 18th, 1955
Religious/ Ethnic/ Cultural Descent: White, German, Atheist
Greatest Contribution to Chemistry: (1905) He created the THEORY of relativity, which describes the change of mass into energy. He also DISCOVERED the law of photoelectric effect. It states that there is a specific amount of energy needed to remove an electron from a metal.
Empedocles
Born: 495 B.C.E.
Died: 435 B.C.E.
Religious/ Ethnic/ Cultural Descent: White, Italian
Greatest Contribution to Chemistry: (440 B.C.E.) He classified 4 elements- water, air, earth, and fire. THEORY
Born: March 8th, 1879
Died: July 28th, 1968
Religious/ Ethnic/ Cultural Descent: White, German

Otto Hahn
Lise Meitner
Born: November 7th, 1878
Died: October 27th, 1968
Religious/ Ethnic/ Cultural Descent: White, Austrian, Protestant
Fritz Strassmann
Born: February 22nd, 1902
Died: April 22nd, 1980
Religious/ Ethnic/ Cultural Descent: White, German
Friedrich Hund
Born: February 4th, 1896
Died: March 31st, 1997
Religious/ Ethnic/ Cultural Descent: White, German
Greatest Contribution to Chemistry: (1926) He created Hund’s rule. This included the principle of quantam tunneling. He also said that molecular orbitals could be used to find the structure of the molecule and the chemical bond.
Greatest Contribution to Chemistry: (1938) They DISCOVERED that uranium atoms can be split. However, this would only happen if they were shot with a multitude of neutrons.
Antoine Lavoisier
Born: August 16th, 1743
Died: May 8th, 1794
Religious/ Ethnic/ Cultural Descent: White, French, Roman Catholic
Greatest Contribution to Chemistry: (1785) He proved the Law of Conservation of Mass. It states that mass is neither created nor destroyed. The mass of the reactants is equal to the mass of the products. He also showed that oxygen is needed for anything to burn, and that oxygen and hydrogen make water. DISCOVERY
Dalton Model
Fifth Century B.C.E.
1897
350 B.C.E.
Democritus
440 B.C.E.
1785
1808
1904
1905
1909
1911
1925
1926
1927
1938
Fourth Century B.C.E.
Carl David Anderson
Born: September 3rd, 1905
Died: January 11th, 1991
Religious/ Ethnic/ Cultural Descent: White, Swedish American
Greatest Contribution to Chemistry: (1932) Anderson DISCOVERED the positron, a positive electron, while studying cloud chamber photographs of cosmic rays.
Aristotle
Born: 382 B.C.E.
Died: 322 B.C.E.
Religious/ Ethnic/ Cultural Descent: White, Ancient Greek
Greatest Contribution to Chemistry: Aristotle did not believe in the THEORY of atoms because of the lack of evidence at the time. Instead, he believed in the four elements—air, water, earth, and air (date unknown).
Antoine Henri Becquerel
Born: December 15th, 1852
Died: August 25th, 1908
Religious/ Ethnic/ Cultural Descent: White, French, Roman Catholic
Greatest Contribution to Chemistry: (1896) Becquerel DISCOVERED the radioactivity of uranium while studying the uranium salts that produced clear X-ray images without exposure to the sun.
Niels Bohr
BornL October 7th, 1885
Died: November 18th, 1962
Religious/ Ethnic/ Cultural Descent: White, Denmark, Lutheran
Greatest Contribution to Chemistry: (1913) Bohr developed “The Bohr Model” which shows electrons orbiting around the nucleus in different energy levels/shells. His THEORY also included that the protons of the nucleus were being held together by large amounts of energy.
Victor de Broglie
Born: August 15th, 1892
Died: March 18th, 1987
Religious/ Ethnic/ Cultural Descent: White, French
Greatest Contribution to Chemistry: (1924) Broglie developed his THEORY of electron waves which described the behavior and properties of an object that varies in time or space.
Sir James Chadwick
Born: October 20th, 1891
Died: July 24th, 1974
Religious/ Ethnic/ Cultural Descent: White English
Greatest Contribution to Chemistry: (1932) Chadwick DISCOVERED the existence of neutrons.
Marie Curie
Born: November 7th, 1867
Died: July 4th, 1934
Religious/ Ethnic/ Cultural Descent: White, French, Agnostic
Greatest Contribution to Chemistry: (1896) Curie developed procedures to separate radium from radioactive residues and to characterize and study their properties. EXPERIMENT
Works Cited
1932
Third Century B.C.E.
1896
1913
1924
Definition of
Atomic Theory:
The theory that all matter is made of atoms
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The Rutherford Model shows that the atom is mostly empty space and that most of the mass is contained in the central region of the atom, the nucleus. Electrons move around the nucleus.
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