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SCIENCE FIELD

Group Presentation BIK1163
by

Suzie Cujie

on 7 January 2014

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Transcript of SCIENCE FIELD

Suzie anak Masin
Tiatira a/p Bah Konjing
Dang Qian Lei
Group 5
SCIENCE
discuss...
Science
Writing vs
Scientific
Writing
Introduces Sample of Writing Documents in Science Writing and Scientific Writing
The Elements of Writing in both Science Writing and Scientific Documents
What is Science?
about everything
communication
Latin (
scientia
) – knowledge
observation and experimentation to describe and explain natural phenomena
introduction
Science
Writing vs
Scientific
Writing
Science
Writing
- writing about science for the popular media
- audience (general or public)
- examples (National Geographic, Discovery Magazine)
Scientific
Writing
- technical writing by a scientist
- audience (peers or other scientists)
- examples (journals, lab report, memos etc)
Science Writing
Scientific Writing
Research Paper
lab report
General style of Writing
General Language
depend on the level of knowledge of the audiences
sometimes, hard to understand
straightforward
Scientific Vocabulary
is a hodgepodge of little words
e.g:
Common Verbs
conclude
estimate
examine
identify
interpret
hypothesis
classify
conclude

Fields
- biology, medical, nature, physic, chemistry, animal, sport, etc.
memo
Purpose
make request
give announcement
communicate report
Format
Request Memo
company name
company address
date of the memos
to
from
subject
Communicate Report
include illustration
attach appendices
break the memo's into section
include the list at the end if references arise in the memo
Language used
formal language
straightforward
clear explanation
effective language
Tone
professional
respectful
formal
honest and forthright
Style
avoid passive voice
active voice instead
avoid using be, at all cost, esp. conjuction
News Articles
Purpose
- Reveals science to world
- Give information to people based on age
- Help to increase people lifestyle
- Discuss current issue / tell stories
Language
A bit of passive voice and active voice as well
Format
- Title
- Summary
- References and links
Geological paper
Format
Purpose
communicate exactly what occurred in an experiment
discuss the results clearly
scientists/science's students should be able to read the report/information based on format
Used required format
Necessary - Title
- Introduction
- Abstract
- Discussion/Conclusion
- Results
Needed/Common - Tables
- Figures
- Method and Materials
- Citations
- References
Title Information
Abstract
Introduction
Methods and Materials/ Equipments
Discussion/Conclusion
Results
Basic Format
General Introduction
Review Literature
Materials and Methods
Experimental Section
Format of scientific thesis paper
2 advantages Materials and Methods
- avoid repetition
- cleans the way for the results of related experiments to be presented
Language used
Scientific Language
Figurative Language
can make for interesting
engaging casual reading
complex, effective, explain, close
familiar and straightforward
Squirrel Language
scientists are as careful about their language as poets are
unfortunately, poets seeks strike the emotions of his readers while scientists appeal to reason and defend a position
to defend themselves, argue their statements
squirrel language sets in when the author writes cautiously without a good reason
In order to resolve such issues in superstring theory it is
presumably
necessary to understand the deep principles on which the theory is based.
In the sense
the development of superstring theories is in sharp contrast to the development of general relativity.
In order to resolve such issues [in superstring theory] scientists
must understand
the deep principles on which the theory is based because [explanation]. Since it. . . [explanation], the development of superstring theories contrasts sharply with the development of general relativity.
Conclusion
- the result is weak and vague prose
- the way to hegde your bets in case some futures disaster or new data falsifies a claim
The style of writing
Tone
- serious
- matter-of-fact
- no personal opinions
Style
- concise and formal
- use past tense
- paying attention to grammar and spelling
Writing in PASSIVE VOICE
What is passive voice?
“Voice” refers to the way the verb is used in the sentence. Remember that a sentence has to have a
subject
and a
verb
, and many verbs require
direct objects.
e.g active voice:
subject

verb

direct object
Babe hit the baseball.

doer

action


receives action
In passive voice, the
subject
of the sentence also
receives the action
. The
doer
of the action is someone else
e.g passive voice:
subject

verb

The baseball is hit by Babe.
receives action

action

who did the action
part of the scientific point of view
observe and record as objectively as possible, avoiding personal bias by removing ourselves
clarifies procedures and descriptions so they can be easily reproduced and compared.
Why Passive Voice?
Examples of Passive Voice in scientific writing
Correct
:
200mL of distilled water was poured into a 500 mL beaker.
Incorrect
:
I
poured 200mL of distilled water in a beaker. (active voice)
Pour 200mL water in a beaker. (direction/command)

Correct
:
The covered crucible was mounted on a ring stand.
Incorrect
:
We
put the crucible on a ring stand. (active voice)
Set the crucible on a ring stand. (direction/command)

Correct
:
The temperature was initially measured at 75°C.
Incorrect
:
I
measured the temperature at 75°C. (active voice)
Measure and write down the temperature. (direction/command)
Abbreviation
- If you wish to use an abbreviation for a chemical or generic name, write the full name the first time it appears in the text.
e.g : Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is converted to 1,3-
diphosphoglycerate (1,3-DPG).
- some scientific writing will not mention the full name of the abbreviation
- avoid using contractions such as don’t, can’t, wasn’t, etc. in scientific works
Idols of Science Writing become habit among the scientists
complex sentences are more precise and intelligent than simple ones
passive voice is more objective than active voice because active voice involves stating the agent, who is often a human and humans introduce subjectivity
descriptive prose is imprecise and unscientific because descriptions rely on adjectives which are often unquantifiable
claims about scientific fact must always be cautious, thus using very cautious language-squirrel language-in scientific prose is always prudent
be as wary of innovation or taking chances in language as you are in a lab
revision is unnecessary because language is transparent
references
Geological and Scientific Terms
Astronomical Terms
Abbreviation
Figure
Good Scientific Thinking Can Lead to bad Science writing
Council of Biology Editors. (1994). Scientific style and format: the CBE manual for authors, editors, and publishers (6th ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Day, R. A. (1998). How to write and publish a scientific paper (5th ed.). Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press.

Day, R. A. (1995). Scientific English: a guide for scientists and other professionals. (2nd ed.) Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press.
Tone
Serious and matter-of-fact (without any personal opinions)
Style
concise and formal language
use past tense
strictly paying attention to grammar and spelling
Full transcript