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Breast Cancer

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by

Jayne Zhou

on 3 March 2015

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Transcript of Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer
BRCA1
It is a gene that produces tumor suppressor proteins.
Helps prevent cells from growing and dividing too rapidly or in an uncontrolled way.
Provides instructions for making a protein that is directly involved in repairing damaged DNA.
When this gene is
mutated,
or altered, so that it's protein product is not made or does not function correctly,
DNA
damage may not be repaired properly.
Cells are more likely to develop additional mutations that can lead to cancer.
Located on
chromosome
17.

By: Jayne Zhou & Dasha Efimov
BRCA2
Also produces tumor suppressor proteins.
The protein produced from the BRCA2 gene helps prevent cells from growing and dividing too rapidly or in an uncontrolled way.
Provides instructions for making a protein that is directly involved in the repair of damaged
DNA
.
There is an increased risk of getting breast cancer if the BRCA2 gene gets mutated.
Located on chromosome 13.
Location
Breast cancer is caused when certain
cells
in the breast become abnormal and multiply without control or order to form a
tumor
.
The most common form of breast cancer begins in cells lining the ducts that carry milk (ductal cancer).
Other forms of breast cancer begin in the glands that produce milk (lobular cancer)
In some cases, cancerous tumors invade surrounding tissue and spread to other parts of the body.
Cancerous cells most often appear in the bones, liver, lungs, or brain.
Symptoms
Some
symptoms
are breast lumps or a lump in the armpit that is hard, has uneven edges, and usually does not hurt.
Another symptom is the change in the size, shape, or feel
For example, redness, dimpling, or puckering that looks like the skin of an orange.
There may also be fluid from the nipple and it may be bloody, clear to yellow, green, or look like pus.
In men, breast cancer symptoms include breast lump and pain , as well as tenderness.
Other symptoms of advanced breast cancer include bone pain, breast pain or discomfort, skin ulcers, swelling of the
lymph
nodes in the armpit, and weight loss.

Treatment

There are many ways of treating breast cancer. One way is chemotherapy.
Chemotherapy uses medicine to kill the
cancer
cells.
There is also radiation therapy, which is used to destroy cancerous tissue.
People also use surgery to remove cancerous tissue
Mastectomy removes all or part of the breast and possible nearby structures.
Targeted therapy uses medicine to attack the gene changes in cancer cells.
Hormone therapy is an example of targeted therapy. It blocks certain hormones that fuel cancer growth.
This map shows the number of breast cancer cases around the world. As you can see there are most cases in the U.S., Canada, Sweden, Finland, France, England, and Australia.
About 5% to 10% of breast cancers are
hereditary
, caused by abnormal genes passed from parent to child. You are at a higher risk to have an abnormal breast cancer gene if you have blood relatives (grandmothers, mother, sisters, aunts) on either your mother's or father's side of the family who had breast cancer diagnosed before age 50. Or if there is both breast and ovarian cancer in your family, particularly in a single individual. Another reason would be if there are other gland-related cancers in your family such as pancreatic, colon, and thyroid cancers. Also if women in your family have had cancer in both breasts. And if you are of Ashkenazi Jewish (Eastern European) heritage. Lastly, if a man in your family has had breast cancer you are at a higher risk of getting it.

Inheritance
3 Interesting Facts
About Breast Cancer
1) In the US, 1 in 8 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer in their lifetime.
2)The most significant risk factors for breast cancer are being female and aging. About 95% of all breast cancers in the US occur in women 40 and older.
3)Each year it is estimated that over 220,000 women in the United States will be
diagnosed
with breast cancer and more than 40,000 will die.
Frequency
About 1 in 8 (12%) women in the US will develop invasive breast cancer during their lifetime.
Female breast cancer incidence rates began decreasing in 2000, then dropped by about 7% from 2002 to 2003.
About 2,360 new cases of breast cancer were expected to be diagnosed in men in 2014.
A man’s lifetime risk of breast cancer is about 1 in 1,000.
Almost 40,000 women in the U.S. were expected to die in 2014 from breast cancer, though death rates have been decreasing since 1989.

Vocabulary
Mutated-
verb
1. to change; alter.


-noun
1.the basic structural unit of all organisms.
Cells
Symptoms
-noun
1.a phenomenon that arises from and accompanies a particular disease or disorder and serves as an indication of it.
Hereditary
-adjective
1.
passing, or capable of passing, naturally from parent to offspring through the genes:
- DNA is encoded in the sequence of the bases and is transcribed as the strands unwind and replicate.
DNA
Vocabulary (cont.)
HER2
Makes HER2 proteins, those proteins are receptors on the chest.
Normal HER2 proteins help control how a healthy breast cell grows, divides, and repairs itself, but in about 25% of breast cancers the HER2 gene doesn't work correctly and makes too many copies of itself.
This is known as HER2 gene
amplification
.
Extra HER2 genes tell breast cells to make too many HER2 receptors, which causes breast cells to grow and divide in an uncontrolled way.
cancer: (noun)
-the disease caused by an uncontrolled division of abnormal cells in a part of the body.
-a malignant growth or tumor resulting from the division of abnormal cells.

tumor : ( noun )
-a swelling of a part of the body, generally without inflammation, caused by an abnormal growth of tissue,

chromosome: ( noun )
-a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.

amplification: ( noun )
- A process in a cell by which a particular gene is replicated so that more copies are available to produce a protein for the cell's use

diagnosed: ( verb )
-identify the nature of (an illness or other problem) by examination of the symptoms.

lymph: ( noun )
-a colorless fluid containing white blood cells, that bathes the tissues and drains through the lymphatic system into the bloodstream.






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