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English Civil War Timeline
Transcript of English Civil War Timeline
1588. She died in 1603 and James VI of Scotland became James I, King of England. The English Civil War James I, a Roman Catholic, introduced the Divine Right of Kings to England which did not go over well. He was a tyrant, elected incompetent people as advisors, such as Duke of Buckingham, and insulted the other nobles with his slovenly habits. He also published a 'Book of Sports', which encouraged people to do activities on Sunday, in order to anger the Puritans. When James I died in 1625 Charles I, his son, came to the throne.
Like his father he believed in the Divine Right of Kings and was a Roman Catholic King in a Protestant country. He had an extravagant lifestyle which didn't sit well with the people of England because he brought back an ancient fee called ship money to pay for things. When Charles I went to parliament in order to get more money they refused to give any until he signed a new charter called the "Petition of Right". This declares that no free man may be punished except by judgement or law. When Duke of Buckingham was assassinated Charles I
had others help achieve his goals. Lord Strafford and Bishop
Laud were two such people. Both men were very unpopular
and new ways to feed off the country and alienate the
Puritans. In 1637 Charles I, as king of Scotland, tried to force the Scottish
people to worship in the style of the Church of England. In order
to stop the rebellion of the Scottish people in time Charles called
"Short Parliment" in 1640 but shut it down within three weeks.
When he called a new parliament, "Long Parliament", they demanded
Strafford and Laud be removed from power and punished. Once Stafford and Laud were executed and parliament helped to
crush the Scottish rebellion they decided that a king should never
have absolute power. So they planned to pass the "Grant Remonstrance" which propesd to change the role of the king in the government and take away parts of his power. In 1642 civil war broke out in Enland. Charles I had noble families
as support and experienced commader while parliament's troops
were locals, farmers and townspeople. But parliament did control
the navy and made an alliance with the Scots who were called the
New Model Army, led by Oliver Cromwell. When rebellions in support of the king broke out Colonel Pride
was sent to drive the Presbyterians out of parliament. It was the "Rump
Parliament" left by "Pride's Purge" that charged Charles I of treason for making war with his own people. In 1649 Charles I was tried and convicted of treason and was excecuted. Rump Parliament created the "Commonwealth" to get rid of the monarchy
and House of Lords and used the Roundhead army to attack anyone who
didn't support it. So Charles II could not become king of England. Instead
Oliver Cromwell became a military dicator, taking power by force after
defeating Scotland and Ireland. By pushing Catholic landowners out of
Northern Ireland Cromwell divided the country forever. Oliver Cromwell was named "Lord Protector of England" and brought the
"Blue Laws" into being. They stated that Christmas, dancing, gambling,
sports, theatre and other such luxuries were forbidden. After Oliver Cromwell died his son, Richard, took over but he was completely incompetant and resigned. A new parliament was elected, the monarchy and the House of Lords was restored and in 1660 Charles II was invited back to England as a constitutional monarch. Charles agreed and the country rejoiced as their king came back to power. Charles II undid all that had been done during Oliver Cromwell's time and was a fun-loving person so the Blue Laws were very quickly overthrown. When Charles tried to protect the religious rights of his fellow Catholics the new parliament passed the "Test Act" which stated that the Church of England was supreme and no Catholic could hold a political position. Charles's own brother, James II, was forced out of his job. When Charles II died in 1685 James II came to power, something that parliament disliked because he was Catholic and gave positions of power to other Catholics. He also believed in the Divine Right of Kings and attempted to take power from parliament. Rebellions broke out and any support for James soon disappeared. Eventually parliament invited James's daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange to become the monarchs of England. James II resigned and for the first time the monarch was chosen by parliament, not hereditary right. This time was called the "Glorious Revolution." Mary and William agreed with the new Bill of Rights. The document made it very clear that the government ruled the country, not the monarchs. These rights are the basics for the rights we enjoy in Canada right now.