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11- Origins of American Politics: Hamilton vs. Jefferson
Transcript of 11- Origins of American Politics: Hamilton vs. Jefferson
Man is rational and capable of self- improvement
Government exists to protect man's natural rights to life, liberty, and happiness.
The greatest threat to man's freedom is government.
Government needs to be limited in its powers and completely responsive to the needs of the people.
State governments should have greater power because they are less likely to be despotic
Man is irrational, corrupt and guide by base insticts.
Sovereignty must rest with a strong central government insensitive to popular will.
Governments function is to maintain order in a chaotic society.
Government needs to be remote and secure from the people's emotional uprisings.
Hamilton's Financial Plan
Revolutionary War Debt
(Interpretation of Constitution)
Loose Construction/ Consitutionalist
(Interpretation of Constitution)
1794 – 12,000 men under command of Gen. Harry Lee, accompanied by Washington & Hamilton.
They arrest 150 protesters – rebellion crushed and shows the strength of the US.
REACTION - WHISKEY REBELLION
How did the debate over the role of governemnt lead to the creation of the first political parties in the United States?
Hamilton and Jefferson were further divided
over which side to support.
The Execution of Louis XVI
Opposed Revolution due to violence of the Reign of Terror.
Opposed American support of anti-monarchy group
Called it a “Democracy gone wrong”.
HAMILTON - FEDERALISTS
Supported popular forces in the French Revolution and favored American involvement.
Viewed as an extension of the American Revolution
Alexander Hamilton verses Aaron Burr
Side Effect of Louisiana Purchase:
New England Federalists talk "secession" @ Hartford Convention
Hamilton accuses Burr of conspiracy to destroy the Union.
Hamilton is killed. Burr is disgraced.
Election of 1796
John Adams elected President
Thomas Jefferson elected Vice President
George Washington warns against the formation of political parties in his Farewell Address.
THE XYZ AFFAIR
Election of 1800
Thomas Jefferson defeats John Adams.
Jefferson wins the popular vote.
No candidate receives enough electoral votes - vote goes to the House of Representatives.
Thomas Jefferson - 73
Aaron Burr - 73
John Adams – 65
Charles Pinckney - 64
John Jay - 1
Surprisingly, Hamilton throws his support behind Jefferson, calling Burr a "embryo Ceasar" and the "most unfit man in the United States for the office of president".
The Elastic Clause
"The Congress shall have Power - To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof."
- Article 1 Section 8 Clause 18 of the United States Constitution
The 1st National Bank of the U.S.
The New Nation
Unique position 1789
Only sovereign nation in "new world"
Only republic in a world of monarchies.
Farewell Address Advice
avoid foreign conflict - neutrality
avoid political parties
Embargo Act 1807
The nation experienced its first financial crisis directly after Washington took office. The United States had massive debt from the Revolutionary War. Washington put Alexander Hamilton in charge of finding solutions.
What would Alexander Hamilton do to try and solve the current budget crisis?
The First "Real" Election
Weehawken, NJ - July 11, 1804
The Age of Jefferson
1801 Inaugural Address:
Hamilton - the Musical - Aaron Burr Rap
2 terms in office
cabinet of advisers
Address "Mr. President"
PART #1 Report on Public Credit (Assumption Plan)
Called for Federal gov't to pay off debt at face value & assume debts of states.
PART #2 Plan to raise revnue & support infant industry = TAXES
high tarrifs (imports)
excise taxes (specific goods - i.e. whiskey)
PART #3 Create National Bank
manage currency & economy
PART #1 - Paying off debt - Jefferson believed it would benefit "
corrupt squadron of paper dealers.
States should pay own debts
Some states owe alot: NY, MS
Some states owed litte: NC, VA
PART #2 -
- Jefferson believe it wouldn't benefit farmers, who relied on imports.
Whiskey Rebellion - some farmers in PA agreed with Jefferson!
PART #3 -
THE NATIONAL BANK
- Jefferson believed the US Constitution did not have a provision for the creation of a bank.
: Capital City moved from NYC to Washington DC
Summer of 1794
Westerners traditionally turned their excess grain into whiskey to supplement their income
Protested the nine cent excise tax on whiskey and other spirits.
Saw tax as “luxury and/or sin” tax unduly targeted their economic interests.
4 states participate in rebellion
Britain violates terms of Treaty of Paris challenging US international commerce.
Seizes 250 US ships loaded withFrench sugar from Carribean
GB may stop neutral vessels, collect pre-Revolutionary War debts from US citizens, & will remove troops from NW territory.
Democratic-Republicans - saw it as a humiliating surrender to the British
French Leaders: saw it as a breech of Franco-American Treaty 1778 and an alliance with their enemy
Spain - moved to cede panhandle of Flordia to US
Attack Ads, 1800
In response to the XYZ Affair, Congress cut off trade with France in 1798 and authorized American privateering (licensing private ships to seize French vessels). This undeclared maritime war and resulted in the capture of nearly two hundred French and American merchant vessels.
"unbounded thirst for ridiculous pomp"