Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

African Kingdoms

No description
by

Jennifer Smith

on 26 February 2016

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of African Kingdoms

Axum (Aksum)
Ethiopia
East African City-States
Axum declined
commercial cities spread along the East African coast
Kingdom of Ghana
The land of Gold
Mali
Songhai
In the 1460s, the wealthy trading city of Gao had become the capital of the emerging West African kingdom of Songhai
Kingdoms of West Africa
Kingdoms of East Africa
Africa
Key Word:
Surplus
Commodity
Trade in the Sahara
The earliest development of trade in West Africa was tied to Agriculture
As the Sahara dried out
People migrated to the savanna
great for farming
By 100 A.D. settled agricultural villages were expanding
along the Senegal river, Niger rivers and Lake Chad
This development for farming villages was due to two things:
development of trade
Surplus of goods
The two products that dominated the Sahara Trade
Gold
Salt
Gold was widely available in the area of present-day
Ghana
,
Nigeria

and

Senegal
Its was found in soil along rivers in various forms
Gold nuggets
Gold dust
8 tons of gold was exported annually in 500 A.D. - 1600 A.D.
People would trade gold for Salt
people need salt in their diets to replace salt lost in perspiration
salt was used for food preservation
Things that would be traded:
Leather goods
Kola nuts
Cotton cloth
Enslaved people
Silk
Metal
Beads
Horses
The Sahara had abundance of salt
They would build homes out of blocks of salt
The savanna salt was scarce
people would pay

one pound of gold

for

one pound of salt
Check point!!
How did farming lead to the development of Cities?
Agricultural villages began to produce surplus food, which they traded to other areas. The growth of trade helped those towns develop into cities
The king of Ghana controlled the gold-salt trade routes across West Africa
The kingdom of Ghana is located in modern day Mali
trade met in the marketplace of Ghana
The king collected tolls on goods entering and leaving his land
The capital of Ghana is Kumbi Saleh
Made up of two separate walled twos six miles apart
The first town was dominated by the royal palace, which was surrounded by complex domed buildings
In the second town Muslim merchants from the north of the Sahara lived in luxurious stone buildings
Lured by the gold wealth of Ghana
Merchants helped make Kumbi Saleh a bustling center of trade
Muslim merchants brought their Islamic faith with them to the Kingdom of Ghana
The king employed Muslims as counselors and officials
gradually incorporated some of their military technology and ideas about government
Muslims also introduced:
Written language
coinage
business methods
Although the Islam spread, most Soninke people continued to follow their own traditional beliefs
The rulers of the Soninke people were able to unite many farming villages and create the kingdom of Ghana
Check Point!
What effect did trade have on the West African kingdom of Ghana?
Ghana grew prosperous, trading cities developed, new ideas about government were introduced; Islam was introduced.
"Where the king dwells"
The mansas, or kings of Mali, expanded their influence over:
gold-mining regions to the south
salt supplies in Taghaza
Mansa Musa
the greatest ruler of the kingdom of Mali
He expanded Mali's borders westward to the Atlantic Ocean and northward to conquer many cities
During his 25 year reign, Mansa Musa worked to ensure peace and order in his empire
converted to Islam
based his system of justice on the Quran
Did not impose Islam on the people
Promoted religious freedom and tolerance
In 1324, Mansa Musa showed his devotion to Islam and made a
hajj
He forged new diplomatic and economic ties with other Muslim states
He brought back: Scholars, Architects and teachers
helped promote Islamic education in Mali

An Islamic university was built in Timbuktu
attached students from far and wide
Check Point!!
What did Mansa Musa accomplish during his reign over the kingdom of Mali?
Expanded the kingdom, worked to ensure peace and order, based his system of justice on the Quran, forged ties with other Muslim lands, promoted Islamic education
Great Zimbabwe
"stone houses"
Developed on the fertile region at the bend of the Niger River in present day Mali Niger
Sonni Ali
The solider king
Built the largest state that had ever existed in West Africa
Brought trade routes and wealthy cities under his control
Did not adopt Islam
Followed traditional religious beliefs
Askia Muhammad
Set up a Muslim dynasty
Expanded territory of Songhai
Improved the government
Set up a bureaucracy with separate departments for farming, military and treasury
Each was supervised by officials appointed by the emperor
Muhammad also made a pilgrimage to Mecca
Led to stronger ties ties with the wider Muslim world
Scholars flocked to Muhammad's court at Gao
He built mosques and opened schools for the study of the Quran
Check Point!!
How did Askia Muhammad help shape the empire of Songhai?
He expanded its territory, improved its government by setting up a bureaucracy, built stronger ties with the Muslim world, and built mosques and schools
Kingdom of Benin
Kingdom of Hausa
Developed in the rain forests of the Guinea coast
Built farming villages
Traded pepper and ivory to the neighbors in the savanna
Later slaves
Forest kingdom
A three mile long wall surrounded the capital, Benin City
Palace decorated with elaborate brass plaques and sculptures
Artisans from Ife (neighboring foest society) taught the people of Benin how to cast bronze and brass
Hausa built walls around their villages
West Africa had many conflicts and invasions
By the 1300s, Hasua built a number of independent clay-walled cities
these cities expanded into thriving commercial centers
Cotton weavers and dryers, leather workers and other artisans produced goods for sale
Kano
The most prosperous Hausa city-state
its walls were 50 feet high
protected a population of 30,000
The king and many of the merchants and officials were Muslims
Arabic script influenced the Hausa writing system
Islamic law greatly influenced government
How did other cultures influence the development of Benin and the Hausa city-states?
Check Point!!
The rulers of Benin built on the achievements of earlier forest cultures and artisans from Ife taught them how to cast bronze and brass. Arabic script influenced the Hausa writing system, and Islamic law greatly influenced government.
Valuable product
An amount that is more then needed
Key Word:
Adulis
strategic trading port of the kingdom of Axum
The people of Axum were descended from:
African farmers
the Middle east
The Middle East decedents brought Jewish tradition through Arabia
the emerging of culture gave rise to a unique written and spoken language: Geez
Axum profited from the strategic location of its two main cities
Adulis
a port on the Red Sea
Axum
upland capital city
In 400 A.D. Axum commanded a triangular trade network:
connected Africa, India and the Mediterranean world
A great variety of goods and enslaved people were funneled in and out of the markets of Axsum and Adulis
Interior of Africa:
Ivory
Animal Hides
Gold
Southern Coast:
Iron
Spices
Precious Stones
Cotton Cloth from India
Ships carried these goods up to the Red Sea, where they collected goods from Europe and coutries along the Mediterranean.
In these trading cities Greek, Egyptian, Arab and Jewish merchants mingled with traders from Africa, India and other regions
Ideas spread along with goods
By the 300s, Christianity had reached the region
King Ezana made Christianity the official religion of Axum
In the 600s, Islam began spreading across North Africa and other regions surrounding Axum
Many African rulers embraced this new faith
Created strong cultural ties across much of the continent
Axum remained Christian
Was isolated from its own trade network
by distance from Europe
By religion from many former trading partners
Civil war and economic decline combined to weaken Axum and the kingdom slowly declined
Check Point!!
How was Axum’s trade network similar to those in West Africa?

Both linked Africa to the Mediterranean world; both connected the interior to coastal regions; both included the trade of gold

How did the spread of religion affect the kingdom of Axum?

When the rulers of Axum adopted Christianity, their new religion linked the people of Axum closely to trading partners in North Africa and the Mediterranean world. When Islam spread in Arabia and North Africa, the people were cut off from other Christians in Europe and separated by religion from other people they used to trade with, which led in part to the kingdom's decline.
Center of Goods and Ideas
A Christian Outpost
The decedents of Ethiopia were Axumites

They were able to maintain their independence for centuries
This was partially due to their unifying power of Christian faith
gave them a unique sense of identity
helped establish a culture distinct from that of neighboring peoples
An example of Ethiopia's distinct culture is the unique churches of Lalibela
In the early 1200s King Lalibela came in to power
He directed the building of 11 remarkable churches
Despite their isolation, Ethiopian Christians kept ties with the Holy Land
Some made pilgrimages to Jerusalem
They were also in touch with Christian communities in Egypt
Over time, Ethiopian Christianity absorbed many local customs
Traditional East African Music
Ancient language of Geez
Some Ethiopians practiced Judaism rather than Christianity
They were called Falasha
Check Point!!
How was Ethiopia related to Axum?

It was formed by descendants of the Axumites
In 600s, sailors had learned how to use the annual monsoon winds
allowed for trade between India and Africa
Rulers took advantage of the trade opportunities
Ships came from:
Arabia
Persia
China
Traders acquired:
Ivory
Leopard Skins
Iron
Copper
Gold
Cotton Cloth
Silk
Spices
Porcelain
Glassware
swords
Trade helped local rulers
build strong, independent city-states
Relationships were peaceful between city-states
Competed for trade
International trade system led to:
the culture and language of Swahili
By the 1000s many coastal cities had grown in wealth and size
traders from the Middle East and Asia settled in the cites
local culture absorbed cultural elements from the settlers
Check Point
How did trade influence the city-states of East Africa?
Trade brought people from different cultures to the cities, which led to the spread of Islam in the region, changing architecture and the development of the language of Swahili
Built by Bantu-speaking people who settled in the region
They brought:
iron
mining methods
improved farming skills
Early settlers:
raised cattle
built stone enclosures
improved their building methods
made large walls and palaces
Capital reached its height in 1300
created profitable commercial links with coastal cities
Archaeologist have found:
beads from India
Porcelain from China
artifacts of artisans
jewelry
cotton cloth
Port cities and offshore islands were ideal for trade with Asia
Full transcript