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Chapter 9

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Cory Carver

on 3 November 2017

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Transcript of Chapter 9

Chapter 9
The Civil War
Section 1: The Opposing Sides
Choosing Sides
Robert E. Lee was offered command of the Union army
Lee was one of the most respected officers in the U.S. Army.
Lee declined the offer and joined the confederacy
and stated he could not "raise his hand" against his home state.
He was one of hundreds of officers who had to choose a side, North or South, Union or Confederacy.
Section 1: The Opposing Sides
In 1860 the United States had eight military colleges, seven of them were located in the South.
This gave the South a large number of trained officers to lead its armies.
The North had a strong naval tradition.
More than 75% of the Navy's officers came from the North.
Most of the Navy's warships stayed in the north
as well.
Section 1: The Opposing Sides
The Opposing Economies
The North had several economic advantages.
The North's population was 22 million, compared to the South's 9 million.
This large population enabled the North to raise a large army
Over 90% of the nations factories were located in the North.
They produced over 90% of the country's clothes, boots and shoes.
Over 94% of the North's iron went to making weapons and equipment.
The South had very fertile land.
They produced cotton, tobacco, and many food crops (rice, corn, etc.)
The South's issue wasn't its ability to produce food but to distribute it.
The south had half as many miles of railroad track as the north.
Only one of these rail lines connected the western states in the South to the eastern states.
Financing the War
Both sides had to act quickly to raise money to support the war.
The North controlled the national treasury and could expect continued revenue from tariff's.
Concerns about the North's ability to win caused people to pull their gold and silver from banks.
Without the gold and silver the government couldn't pay its troops.
To solve this congress passed the Legal Tender Act which created a national currency.
These paper bills were called Greenbacks

because of their color.
Section 1: The Opposing Sides
The South's economy was poor and it only got worse as the war went on.
Their best hope was to tax trading of their cash crop goods.
Section 1: The Opposing Sides
The North blockaded the ports in the South.
Lacking sufficient money from trade or taxes the South was forced to print money that had very little worth and caused crazy inflation.
By the end of the war the South had inflation of 9,000%
The North's was only about 80%.

Section 1: The Opposing Sides
Party Politics in the North
The Republicans had division within its party
Most Republicans wanted to abolish slavery but Lincoln just wanted to preserve the Union.
The Democrats were also split.
There were
War Democrats
who supported going to war to restore the Union.
Peace Democrats
who opposed war and wanted to reunite the Union with negotiation.
Peace Democrats were often called copperheads by the Republicans.
Section 1: The Opposing Sides
One major disagreement between Republicans and Democrats was the use of
Conscription
.
Conscription is forcing people into military service.
In 1862 Congress passed a law requiring that states use conscription if they could not get enough volunteers.
Riots erupted in several states where folks did not support conscription.
Lincoln suspended writs of
Habeus Corpus
which is a persons right to not be sent to prison unless they are charged with a crime.
Lincoln suspended the writs of anyone who supported the Rebels or encouraged deserters.
Section 1: The Opposing Sides
The Diplomatic Challenge
The union did not want European intervention into the war.
The Confederacy however tried to get Britain and France involved.
in May of 1861 the British and French met informally with the Confederates.
The French said they would not get involved unless the British did.
The British wanted to see if the Confederates could win a few battles before they supported them.
Section 1: The Opposing Sides
The Trent Affair
In late 1861 the Confederacy sent James Mason and John Slidell to Europe to negotiate on behalf of the Confederacy.
The two men boarded the British ship named the Trent in Cuba.
The ship was interecepted on its way to Europe and Mason and Slidell were arrested.
The British were mad that the U.S. had stopped one of their ships and demanded that Mason and Slidell be released.
The sent troops to Canada and got their war ships ready.
Lincoln eventually freed the two men.
Section 1: The Opposing Sides
Military Technology
The Civil War was the first time cone shaped bullets were used in war.
This was also the first time troops began to defend themselves by building trenches and barricades.
These Cone shaped bullets were much more accurate than round balls of the past.
Section 1: The Opposing Sides
Military Strategy
The South's Strategy was one of attack and retreat.
It was a very defensive plan which meant for a long war.
This angered the Southerners who felt they were better fighters than the North
When battles did break out many Rebel troops would attack and not retreat because they hated the defensive strategy.
This lead to high casualties for the South.
Section 1: The Opposing Sides
The North decided on the
Anaconda Plan
.
The plan was to block southern ports in the east and send gun boats down the Mississippi in the west and the south would eventually run out of resources.
Section 2: Early Stages of War
Mobilizing the Troops
Early in the war Confederate General Beauregard was gathering troops along the Bull Run River in Manassas, Virginia.
Lincoln approved assault on these troops.
Thousands of spectators gathered to watch the battle.
They were shocked at the death and chaos they witnessed.
Section 2: Early Stages of War
Union forces pushed the Confederates back initially.
Rebel reinforcements arrived under the direction of General Thomas Jackson
As the Confederates were retreating their commander yelled "There's Jackson standing like a stone wall"
Jackson was became known as Stonewall Jackson from that point forward.
Section 2: Early Stages of War
As the Confederate reinforcements arrived, Union troops retreated giving the South the first victory in the Civil War.
This victory made it clear to the North that they would need a large army to defeat the South.
In an attempt to get the troops needed the Union began offering a Bounty to volunteers.
A Bounty is a sum of Money given as a bonus to individuals who promised to serve three years in the military.
Section 2: Early Stages of War
The Naval War
By 1862 the Union Navy had blockaded all major ports in the South.
The blockade proved very effective over time but they couldn't stop all of the Blockade Runners.
Blockade Runners were small, fast ships that could slip past the larger Union war ships.
The South used these ships to smuggle goods under the cover of night.
Section 2: Early Stages of War
Farragut Seizes New Orleans
While the Union was attempting to seal off the South's Atlantic ports, it also needed to take control of New Orleans.
In April of 1862 naval forces led by David Farragut began bombing Confederate forts defending the lower Mississippi River.
On April 25, 1862 Farragut made it to New Orleans after surviving a battle while heading up river.
6 days after reaching New Orleans, the Union had taken control of the South's largest city and center of the cotton trade.
Section 2: Early Stages of War
The War in the West
In early 1862, General Ulysses S. Grant began his plan to take control of the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers.
Backed by armored gun boats Grant seized Fort Henry on the Tennessee River and then Fort Donelson on the Cumberland.
All of Kentucky and most of Tennessee was now under Union control.
Section 2: Early Stages of War
Shiloh
Grant's troops were headed to attack Corinth, Mississippi but on April 6, 1862 confederates launched a surprise attack.
The battle took place near a small church named Shiloh.
The Union forces were pushed back but General Grant assembled a defensive line and kept off the Rebels until reinforcements arrived.
Once help arrived the Grant and the Union troops were able to push back the Rebels.
The battle was the bloodiest of the war yet with over 20,000 killed or wounded.
Northerners wanted Grant fired because of all the bloodshed but Lincoln refused.
Lincoln stated "I can't fire this man. He fights!"
Section 1 Essential Questions
What economic advantages did the north have?
What were each sides military traditions?
What was the military strategy for both the North and the South?
Section 1: The Opposing Sides
Section 3: Life during the war
By 1862 the Southern economy was failing due to the Union blockade and Union troops in agriculture areas.
This led to a food shortage in the winter of 1862-1863.
There were riots in many areas due to the food shortage.
The Union experienced a war boom however.
Because of the need for uniforms, weapons, and other items the factories in the north prospered.
African Americans in the Military
After the Emancipation Proclamation and General Order 143, the first blacks signed up for military service.
About 180,000 African Americans served in the Union Army.
The 54th Massachusetts was among the first all black regiments
Soldiers in the Field
Soldiers on both sides faced many hardships.
Confederate troops often slept without blankets and went shoeless due to the South's economic conditions.
Hardtack is a hard biscuit made of wheat and flour that many Union troops considered a staple of their diet.
Battlefield Medicine
Many Civil War doctors had little knowledge of infection and disease.
They were unprepared for the gruesomeness that was the civil war.
Many soldiers who were wounded in battle died on a doctors table.
The lucky soldiers who survived often had an arm or leg amputated in order to prevent infection from the wound to spread.
Women Serve As Nurses
In 1861 Elizabeth Blackwell began the first training program for female nurses.
This led to the creation of the United States Sanitary Commission which provided medical assistance and supplies to army camps and hospitals.
Clara Barton acted as a battlefield nurse on her own.
She worked to distribute stores, clean field hospitals, apply dressings, and serve food to wounded soldiers in close proximity to several battles.
She later founded the American Red Cross.

Military Prisons
Soldiers who were captured during battle were considered prisoners of war.
The North and South often exchanged prisoners of war until the Emancipation Proclamation.
The Confederates would not exchange prisoners after that and would often execute captured African Americans.
Andersonville, Georgia was the worst Civil War Military Prison.
About 13,000 of the 45,000 held there died.
Section 4: The Turning Point

Vicksburg Falls
Lincoln wanted General Grant to take the Mississippi city of Vicksburg.
Grant couldn't attack from the north so he had to maneuver his troops across the Mississippi River, march them south, then cross back over the Mississippi River.
Greirson's Raid
Grant needed to distract the Confederates
he sent Colonel Benjamin Grierson and 1700 calvary troops on a raid through Mississippi.
Griersons troops traveled 600 miles in two weeks, tearing up railroads, buring buildings, and fighting skirmishes along the way.
The raid enabled Grant to move his troops south of Vicksburg in preparation for his seige.
The Seige of Vicksburg
Once his troops were back across the Mississippi River, Grant began a daring march east.
His troops packed light, bringing only guns and ammunition.
They foraged for food, basically searching or raiding what they could to eat.
They captured the town of Jackson before turning west towards Vicksburg.
Grant attempted two attacks on Vicksburg, both failed and inflicted high casualties.
Grant decided the only way to take the city was to put it under seige.
Seige means to cut off its food and supplies and bombard it until it gives up.
The siege of Vicksburg lasted 6 weeks, the troops and citizens were near starvation.
Finally the Confederate commander surrendered on July 4th, 1863.
The Road to Gettysburg
In late 1862 Lincoln gave command of the Union army to Ambrose Burnside.
He wanted Burnside to destroy Robert E. Lee's army in Virginia.
In December, Burnside ordered attack on Lee at Fredericksburg, Virginia.
The Union force suffered over 12,000 casualties, more than double the Confederates of Lee.
Lincoln then replaced Burnside with Joseph Hooker.
Hooker was defeated badly at Chancellorsville, Virginia and Lincoln decided to make another change in commanders.
The Battle of Gettysburg
Lincoln placed George Meade in charge.
Meade immediately marched north to intercept Lee's army which was invading into Union territory.
On July 1, 1863 the two armies encountered each other at the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.
On July 2nd, Lee attacked but the Union troops held their ground.
The next day Lee ordered 15,000 men under the command of General George Pickett to make a massive assault.
The attack is known as Pickett's charge.
a mile wide line of confederate troops marched across a wide open farm field toward what was known as Cemetery Hill.
Union forces opened fire and killed 7,000 casualties in less than half an hour of fighting.

Aftermath of Gettysburg
Lee and the Confederates retreated on July 4th.
The Confederacy lost approximately 28,000 men
The Union lost 23,000 men.
The Battle of Gettysburg was a turning point for several reasons:
Republicans united politically in the North.
Ensured Britain wouldn't enter the war.
Lee's once unstoppable army was now and the defensive and losing ground.
The fight for Tennessee
Union troops retreated to the town of Chattanooga after losing a battle at Chickamauga Creek.
They were surrounded by confederate troops.
Lincoln sent some of General Meade's army to help the trapped Union forces.
He also put Ulysses S. Grant in command.
Grant ordered troops to attack the Union on Missionary Ridge.
The first attempt to break through Union lines by William Tecumseh Sherman's army failed.
Grant ordered a diversion attack by General George Thomas's 23,000 men.
Grant did not expect the attack to be successful but was surprised when Thomas's army broke through and the confederates retreated.
Due to his capture of Vicksburg and victory at Chattanooga, Grant was made the General in Chief of the Union army.
No one had held that rank since George Washington.
Section 5: The War Ends
From the Wilderness to Cold Harbor
Grant was determined to march south and relentlessly attack Lee's army.
The first battle happened in the Wilderness, a dense forest that eventually caught fire from the battle.
Despite suffering heavy casualties, Grant attacked again in Spotsylvania.
The fighting at Spotsylvania was intense.
Soldiers often found themselves in to combat.
Warfare was different now, combat was savage, with many advances and retreats.
Convinced that his relentless attacks had weakened Lee's army, Grant launched an all out assault at Cold Harbor.
The Union lost 7,000 men in the attack vs. the South's 1,500.
The Siege of Petersburg
Grant employed a trusted tactic.
He ordered General Philip Sheridan to stage a calvary raid as a diversion.
Meanwhile Grant intended to attack Petersburg.
Confederates had heavily fortified the city.
Trenches were dug and miles of barricades had been laid.
Grant realized his army wouldnt be able to attack.
He reached in the playbook for another trusted tactic, a siege.
Lee eventually abandonded Petersburg and retreated to Appomattox Courthouse.
Farragut Attacks Mobile
Admiral David Farragut defeated a Confederate fleet defending Mobile Bay in Alabama.
By defeating the defenses of Mobile he sealed off any port in the Gulf of Mexico.
Sherman's March to the Sea
General William Tecumsah Sherman began his "March to the Sea" in August of 1864.
His troops destroyed Atlanta by heating railroad lines and twisting them into snarls of steel.
These twisted rail lines were nicknamed Sherman neckties.
From Atlanta his troops cut a path of destruction by ransacking houses, burning crops, and killing cattle.
They finally reached the sea in December of 1864 in Savannah, Georgia.
They Pillaged (robbed by using violence) everything in front of them.
12 towns were set on fire, including the capital of South Carolina, Columbia.
The South Surrenders
In January of 1865 Congress passed the 13th amendment which officially banned slavery in the United States.
In April of 1865, Grant finally surrounded Lee.
Lee surrendered to Grant at the Appomattox Courthouse on April 9, 1865.
Lincoln's Assassination
On April 14, 1865 President Lincoln went to see a play called "Our American Cousin" at Ford's Theatre.
During the 3rd act of the show, John Wilkes Booth snuck into Lincoln's unguarded suite.
Booth fired one shot from his Philadelphia Derringer pistol.
The bullet struck the back of Lincoln's head behind his left ear, entered his skull, fractured part of it badly and went through the left side of his brain before lodging just above his right eye almost exiting the other side of his head.
Booth lept from the balcony of Lincoln's Presidential sweet, breaking his leg when he landed on the stage.
"Sic Semper Tyrannus" he yelled before running from the stage.
Lincoln's official time of death was 7:22 a.m. on April 15, 1865.
The Aftermath of the American Civil War
The power of the federal government over the states was strengthened.
The South was socially and economically devastated.
The process of ending slavery was began.
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