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Ch. 1 Principles of Government

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William Callahan

on 11 September 2018

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Transcript of Ch. 1 Principles of Government

1.1 Principles of Government
What is government?
Government is an institution through which a society makes and enforces
Public Policy.
Public policy
is simply the things a government decides to do.
What must a government have to create policy?
For governments there are
sources of power.
1. Force theory of power
...an individual inherits power (a dynasty),or...
2. Evolutionary theory of power
A government may use coercive power to enforce its will on the people under its control. This is the most elementary use and understanding of political power.
...sometimes evolutionary leaders simply emerge in times of crisis or need.
3. Divine Right Theory of Power
In divine rule, rulers claim they are chosen to rule by god.
4. Social Contract
Signing of the Mayflower Compact 1620
The three governmental powers are reflected in the three branches of the U.S. government.
Legislative Power
Executive Power
Executive power is the power to carry out, administer and enforce laws.
Legislative power is the power to make laws.
Judicial Power
Judicial power is the power to interpret the law and settle disputes
Evolutionary power can mean....
Why are governments created?
is one of our oldest inventions.
The aim of government is to regulate
of people (a population) within a territory.
is expression about the behavior the government wants to regulate.

Governments divide up
. Technically speaking, the world is divided into


(often called nation-states by American political scientists).
What is the difference between a nation, a country, and a state?
A nation is a population bound by a common culture, language, customs, and perhaps ethnic background.
A country is a territory with known and recognized borders.
a state is a body of people (population) living within a defined territory (country) with a
OK, so what is sovereignty?
Sovereignty is supreme and absolute political authority resting upon a source of power.(Remember FORCE, SOCIAL CONTRACT, etc.?)
Can you think of any nations or countries which lack sovereignty?
By our definition of a state, is Virginia a state? Why or why not?
Good writers start an essay with a thesis.
What is the thesis statement of the U.S. Constitution?

In a social contract individuals agree to limits upon their rights and powers in order to protect "fundamental" rights agreed upon by society.
1.2 Types of Government
There are really only two basic forms of government...
In a Democracy, sovereignty is derived from the will of the people. We call this popular sovereignty.
the three models of democracy
- Direct Democracy
-Indirect Democracy
In a direct democracy people make policy themselves.
In an indirect democracy leaders are chosen by the people to make decisions on the behalf of a population .
In a republic the leaders only represent the concerns of the eligible voters.
Is democracy always a good thing?
In a dictatorship the power of the government is
responsible to the will of the people. There are two models of dictatorship.
is a system in which one ruler holds unlimited power. Oddly, this is the most commonly understood, but least prevalent type of dictatorship.
In an Oligarchy power is held by a small group, usually a self-appointed elite within a political party.
There are three ways governments organize the populations and the territories they administer and distribute governmental powers.
1. Unitary (blue)
2. Federal (green)
3. Confederation

What commonalities do you notice among most of the federal countries on the map?
What commonalities do you notice among the unitary countries on the map?
In unitary governments there is one central government which makes all the laws for the state. The state may be subdivided, but each subdivision exists at the will of the central government.
In federal systems the territory of a state is divided into sub-regions given limited sovereignty to rule over themselves, but larger issues such as trade and war are handled by the central government. A common federal form is for fully sovereign states to join together and surrender some independence for the benefits of unity.
A confederation or confederacy is a union among equally sovereign states that join for limited goals such as security or trade among the member states. Each state within a confederacy is free to exercise its governmental powers without interference from either the central government or the other states.
Why do you suppose there are no confederacies shown on this map?
Distribution of Governmental Powers
The U.S. president cannot be a member of the legislature and the executive at the same time. Both branches are independent.
In a parliamentary system the Prime

be part of the legislature. He and his cabinet are both legislators and executive officers.
1.3 Basic concepts of Democracy
In a democracy....
....however, citizens are expected to blend and mix into society (assimilation) while maintaining their individuality. Assimilation often leads to conflicts between immigrants and older citizens...
Free enterprise is a byproduct of democracy. There are five pillars of the free market system...
The United States economic system is
not a completely free economy, in fact it is
a mixed economy
in which the government interferes in the free market. Why? Can you name some examples of positive government interference?

Here are 4 examples of the government's role in a mixed economic system...
Health Inspections
1. Government
keep employees and citizens safe from careless people.
2. governments
economic growth
3. Governments guarantee fair
4. Government
the public. How?
5 basic principles of democracy

5 basic principles of democracy
1. Worth of individual
Equality of all persons
5 basic principles of democracy
Worth of individual

5 basic principles of democracy
1. Worth of individual
2. Equality of all persons
Individual freedom
5 basic principles of democracy
1. Worth of individual
2. Equality of all persons
3. Individual freedom
Majority rule / minority rights
5 basic principles of democracy
1. Worth of individual
2. Equality of all persons
3. Individual freedom
4. Majority rule / Minority rights
Necessity of Compromise
Captain Kirk becomes a Social Studies teacher...
I can only hope that you learn your social studies lessons as well as Barney Fife.
Government Organization Models
In history, democracy has from time to time descended into dictatorship. It is easy to criticize dictatorship, but let's compare the two....
The American system is often criticized for creating gridlock and lack of cooperation between the branches...
However, minority parties in a parliamentary system often feel powerless and frustrated and thus resort to some extreme measures in dissent...
This guy tries to explain the differences between all these terms....
To become a naturalized citizen of the USA, immigrants must pass a citizenship test. A 2014 survey found that fewer than 40% of high school students could pass the same test at a level of 60% or greater...
Teachers are always asked by their students, "Why should we learn this stuff? When will I ever use this?"
Let's begin the process of avoiding this sort of ignorance...
Crash course gives us an overview of how the idea of democracy has changed throughout world history...
John Green explains...
Mike Bost (R-IL) 2012
Full transcript