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Transcript of Westward Expansion
War with Mexico
Lewis and Clark
828,000 Sq. Miles!
Purchased for $15 million dollars in 1803 by Jefferson (who had no idea what he was buying).
U.S. Acquired Land west of the Mississippi River
Doubled the amount of American land
Jefferson wanted control of the Mississippi River and the port in New Orleans
Napolean and the French needed money to pay for wars in Europe
French offered the whole territory, when Jefferson only wanted the city of New Orleans!!
L & C
St. Louis to the Pacific Ocean!
Trying to Discover Northwest Passage and map an unknown land
Sent by Thomas Jefferson
How,Who,Why, and When, did we travel west?
Where did we settle in the west?
How did we acquire the land?
Who experienced hardships and what were they?
Marcus & Narcissa Whitman
Wagon trains left Independence, Missouri every spring AKA “jumping-off point”
Began mid-1840’s until 1890’s
Donner Party 1846 slows migration until the CA gold rush in 1848
Farmers heard intriguing stories of farming & fertile land
People sold everything they had to buy a wagon, oxen, supplies to make the trip
50,000 people Oregon from 1840-1860
THE OREGON TRAIL
2,000 miles ; 5-6 months ;
10-15 miles per day
Prepared to move at dawn – 6:00 a.m.
Noon – short lunch
6-8 p.m. circle the wagons & eat
SPRING – late snows, floods, mud, swollen rivers
SUMMER – heat, lack of water, grass for animals
FALL – early snows; had to get over the mountains before snow fell
25% of the women were pregnant
Cholera was the #1 killer
Pioneer Cemetery Vale OR
1820 – Mexicans allow a few Americans to settle in Texas
Mexicans hope that the Americans will help settle the land and protect against the Natives because only 4,000 Mexicans live in Texas!
300 families are chosen by Stephen Austin
Each family will get 640 acres – if you meet the requirements
Settlers would have to:
become Mexican citizens
obey Mexican laws
convert to Catholicism!
20,000 Americans swarm into Texas & do not follow the requirements
Raised cattle & farmed cotton
New settlers brought SLAVES – outlawed in Mexico
Mexico passes a law forbidding anymore Americans!
1830 - TEXAS
Gen. Antonio Lopez de
U.S. offers to buy Texas – TWICE!
General Santa Anna takes power in Mexico & vows to drive the Americans out of Texas
“Texans” fight with Mexicans in several towns
Americans retreat to The Alamo, a mission
Mexicans surround the Americans for 12 days
Outnumbered 150 to 4,000 and lose.
Surviving men are executed & this angers other Americans
The cry goes out to all Americans to join the fight because it sounds like we have been attacked
Eventually, we capture Santa Anna & force him to sign a treaty declaring Texas’ independence!
Mexico does NOT accept the treaty
Santa Anna Signs Treaty
An independent country for TEN years!
1840s-140,000 people in Texas
Texas needed $$$$, so they asked to become part of the U.S.
Americans were undecided about allowing Texas to join the Union:
Main issue: WOULD SLAVERY BE ALLOWED????
Southerners – yes
Northerners - no
THE REPUBLIC OF TEXAS
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
Founder Joseph Smith was a controversial man
Brigham Young leads 15,000 Mormons to Utah
Reason – ISOLATION
They build Salt Lake City, learn to irrigate the valley & plant crops
They prosper & make money from settlers moving West
One reason for their success – help one another and work together!
The Move West
Mormons were driven out of
their towns & states because of their beliefs :
The Rockies are 90 separate mountain ranges and over 3,000 miles long
President Andrew Jackson
Indian Removal Act
Trail of Tears
"Kill the Indian, Save the Man"
630 Killed and 730 Captured
Only 9 killed in battle
"Remember the Alamo"
New Mexico Territory -pg.356
Santa Fe Trail
He and other
attacked & massacred
When it's all over: 10 people died per mile
First white people to settle in the Northwest
Wanted to convert the Natives to Christianity
Massacred when “white” diseases killed the Natives (measles)
Natives expected Dr. Whitman to be able to cure the measles, so they blamed him
Settled in OR & WA
Rocky Mountains=think fur
Dangerous animals and climate
John Jacob Astor
Founded the American Fur Co.
Battle lasted only 18 minutes!
Natives treated poorly
Population decreased from 310,000 to 100,000
President James K. Polk-1844
1844- Sam Houston: treaty with U.S.
"or we'll side with Britain"
Texas admitted in 1845 by Congress
Mexico's Reaction: Confused and Mad
They never accepted the treaty with Texas!
President Polk offered $30 million dollars for California and New Mexico. Mexico refused.
Border dispute (200 mile difference):
U.S. - Rio Grande River
Mexico - Nueces River
3 Fronts - pg. 270
Final Battle: Chapultepec
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Manifest Destiny Achieved....Now what?
Fighting Breaks Out
Who Settled California?
Great Falls, MT
Two Medicine River - East Glacier
"Nunna-dual-tsunyi" - "the trail where we cried"
Line 1: Title (noun) - 1 word
Line 2: Description (adjective) - 2 words
Line 3: Action (Verbs) - 3 words
Line 4: Feeling (phrase) - 4 words
Line 5: Synonym for Title - 1 word
Searching, Finding, Succeeding,
Amazing Group of Men
Write three cinquain poems.
One on the Indian Removal/Trail of Tears
Two others on any of the subjects we have studied from the Westward Expansion of the United States.