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Cory Overmyer

on 1 April 2013

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Transcript of Iontophoresis

Most common problem is a chemical burn which occurs as a result of direct current itself and not because of the ion being used
Decreasing current density by increasing size of cathode can minimize potential for chemical burn Treatment of Chemical Burns Inflammation
Dexamethasone (-)
Hydrocortisone (-)
Lidocaine (+) Selecting the Appropriate Ion Intensity control
1 to 5 mA (our machine 1-4)
Low amperage currents appear to be more effective as a driving force than currents with higher intensities
Higher intensity currents tend to reduce effective penetration into the tissues Current Intensity Strength of electrical field is determined by:
Current density may be altered by
Increasing or decreasing current intensity
Changing the size of the electrode
Bigger electrode pad = less density
Smaller electrode pad = more density Movement of Ions In Tissue Positively charged ions are driven into tissues from the anode
Negatively charged ions are driven into tissues from cathode
Knowing correct ion polarity is essential Movement of Ions In Solution Cathode = Negatively charged electrode
Highest concentration of electrons
Repels negatively charged ions
Attracts positively charged ions Movement of Ions In Solution Overcomes the resistive properties of the skin to charged ions

The amount of time it takes to absorb the medication is decreased, while increasing the rate of delivery compared to passive skin application Pharmacokinetics of Ion Transfer Ionto vs Phono
Cathode & Anode
Difference in Machines
Why we typically use this modality
Indications and contraindications Objectives Iontophoresis

Cory Overmyer Thermal burns may occur due to high resistance to current flow created by poor contact of the electrodes with the skin
Electrodes are not moist enough
Wrinkles in the gauze
Space between the skin and electrode around the perimeter of the electrode
Body weight resting on top of electrode Thermal Treatment Burns Electrodes should be separated by at least the diameter of active electrode
Wider separation minimizes superficial current density decreasing chance for burns Electrode Placement
How do we Prep the body for electrode placement? Electrode Preparation Sold with most iontophoresis systems
Electrodes have a small semipermiable membrane into which ionized solution may be injected
The electrode self adheres to the skin Commercial Electrodes Treatment duration ranges between 10-20 minutes with 15 minutes being an average
Make patient comfortable and continuously check with patient
Decrease intensity during treatment to accommodate decrease in skin impedance to avoid pain or burning
Should not do more than 3 weeks of treatment and approximately 3 days per week Treatment Duration Increase intensity slowly until patient reports tingling or prickly sensation
If pain or a burning, turn down
When terminating treatment intensity should be slowly decreased to zero before electrodes are disconnected
Dosage = Current x Time
Question: a patient tells you he has 15 minutes for a treatment and you push at 2.0mA. What should the dosage be?
Dosage defaults at 40 but you can change
Max 80 mA Current and Dosage Intensity Higher current intensities necessary where skin and fat layers are thick , increasing chance of burns
Sweat ducts are primary paths by which ions move through the skin Movement of Ions In Tissue Anode = Positively charged electrode
Lower concentration of electrons
Repels positively charged ions
Attracts negatively charged ions Movement of Ions In Solution Ionization- Soluable compounds dissolve into ions suspended in solutions that are called electrolytes
Electrophoresis- Movement of ions in solution according to the electrically charged currents acting on them Movement of Ions In Solution Absorption is similar to oral drugs but advantages of Iontophoresis:
Concentrated in a specific area
Does not have to be absorbed within the GI tract
Safer than administering a drug through injection Pharmacokinetics of Ion Transfer Both techniques deliver chemicals to biologic tissues
Phonophoresis uses acoustic energy to drive molecules into tissues
Iontophoresis uses electrical current to transport ions into tissues Iontophoresis vs Phonophoresis Technique that introduces ions into the body's tissues by direct electrical current
Electrical current drives ions across a membrane or into the tissues
It is a painless, sterile, noninvasive technique
Has shown to have positive effect on the healing process Iontophoreis Produce continuous direct current
Assures unidirectional flow of ions
Bidirectional and
alternating currents
do not allow this Iontophoresis Generators Clinical Applications for Iontophoresis

Inflammatory musculoskeletal injuries
Analgesic effects
Scar healing
Wound healing
Hyperhidrosis Contraindications Skin Sensitivity
Sensitivity to aspirin
Gastritis or active stomach ulcer
Sensitivity to metals
Sensitivity to seafood
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