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Timeline and History of Civil Disobedience

Thoreau, Tolstoy, Gandhi, Martin Luther King Jr.

Cheyenne Montalbin

on 21 February 2013

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Transcript of Timeline and History of Civil Disobedience

dsdf a public, non-violent and conscientious
breach of law undertaken with the aim of bringing about a change in laws or government policies A Brief History
of Civil Disobedience Leo Tolstoy Not only did Leo Tolstoy write in a opposition to the orthodox preset by Russian high society, he doubted the Marxian assumption that all social problems were to be attributed to economic failure. He believed and wrote extensively on the idea that to remedy our problems, we must confront the growth of consciousness and religion. With surprising prescience, he pointed out a further danger in communist revolution. Gandhi(1869-1948) Henry David Thoreau 1817 Conclusions Henry David Thoreau's Birth 1906 organizes first campaign of Satyagraha(mass civil disobedience) 1893 takes trip from Nall to Transvaal carrying first class ticket got kicked off the bus this made him realize that he wanted to be an activist Quotes 1896 plague hits India Gandhi helps with sanitation I cannot teach you violence, as I do not believe in it. I can only teach you not to bow your heads before anyone even at the cost of your life. I object to violence because when it appears to do good, the good is only temporary; the evil it does is permanent. March 12, 1930 Gandhi and 70 people march to sea from Sabarmanti Asharam to the sea to protest salt taxation (Salt March) Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever. Martin Luther King Jr.
(January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968)Was born in Atlanta, Georgia. He was a Baptist Minister,a had a Ph.D from Boston University. He was also an American clergyman, activist, and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. He won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964 Action Inspiration "Nonviolence is a powerful and just weapon which cuts without wounding and ennobles the man who wields it. It is a sword that heals." "Darkness cannot drive out darkness: only light can do that. Hate cannot drive out hate: only love can do that." - Began working for civil rights in the mid 1950's - Letter from Birmingham jail (April 16,1963 -Various speeches (I Have a Dream, Give Us the Ballot, If the Negro Wins, Labor Wins, etc. Henry David Thoreau was born and raised in Massachusetts. He lived from 1817-1862. He went to school at Harvard and graduated with a teaching degree. After graduating, he worked in a pencil factory for the majority of the time. He was heavily inspired by Ralph Waldo Emerson and lived with him for years. Emerson lent Thoreau a piece of land called Walden at which Thoreau spent the majority of his time and wrote the majority of his works. Tolstoy also rejected his claims to wealth and fortune, and renounced his place in high society, in order to start seeking a transcendental life. Thoreau's Actions of Civil Disobedience 1. Thoreau spent a night in jail in the summer of 1846. He had refused to pay his poll-tax because it supported the Mexican-American war which he didn't agree with. This night spawned his essay titled "Civil Disobedience". Thoreau's Philosophy: 2. Thoreau also aided on the underground railroad in his town. He was an outspoken abolitionist and wrote many attacks on slavery. He aided in this because he thought the Fugitive Slave Law should be repealed. "He believes that - men should not accumulate wealth, no matter how much evil a person does to us, we should always do good to him..." (From Gandhi in reference to Tolstoy)
"Everyone thinks of changing the world, but no one thinks of changing himself." (Three Methods of Reform)
"There is as much difference as between cat s**t and dog s**t. But I don't like the smell of either one or the other." (In reference to capitalist and communist bipartisanship)
"In order to obtain and hold power, a man must love it." (The Kingdom of God is Within You) - Inspired countless others into action for equality, even after his death(April 4, 1968 Thoreau's Time At Walden 1845-1849 Martin Luther King Jr. was inspired by different people, but a huge factor in his work was Gandhi. While living in different times he was never actually able to meet him, King visited India in order to be able to see the result of his work. he went on a month long trip to India. On his return he was very impressed with what Gandhi was able to accomplish with peaceful protest. Many believed this helped him continue to lead peaceful acts and avoid violence which at this time of so much racial tension between different radical groups (black panthers white supremacists etc.) was an accomplishment. Another belief King shared was power in numbers. Both Gandhi and King had a huge number of supporters, and they believed that by educating there followers they could accomplish there goals more efficiently. King learned the ideas that the big picture is larger than one man, and will ultimately continue after ones death. He wanted to revive a theory of philosophy as a way of life, not only a mode of reflective thought. Thoreau believed that people should work on reforming themselves not society. He said "I wanted to live deep and suck out all the marrow in life, to cut a broad swath and shave close, to drive life into the corner,and reduce it to its lowest terms." Basically he strived to simplify life, take out the unnecessary factors of life. Thoreau Spent a Night In Jail 1846 Thoreau's Death 1862 Thoreau Published Civil Disobedience 1849 ... There have been tyrants and murderers, and for a time they can seem invincible, but in the end they always fall, always. Thoreau Quotes: - "As you simplify your life, the laws of the universe will be simpler; solitude will not be solitude,nor
weakness weakness. - "The only obligation which i have the right to assume, is to do at any time what I think is right.

- "I Have unjust wrestled a plank from a drowning man, I must restore it to him before I drown myself.

- "Those who, while they disapprove of the character and measures of a government, yield to it their allegiance and support are undoubtedly the most conscientious supporters, and so frequently the most serious obstacles to reform." -Bus segregation laws in Alabama outlawed.
-King established support from many organization and people around the world. As well a starting non-violent organizations in the U.S.
-Could influence public opinions using the Bible, constitution, ext.
-Helped make knowledge of what was happening accessible to he world, the result was national outcry's against things like the treatment of protesters by segregation officials in Birmingham.
-The Civil Rights act of 1964 passed.
-Voting Rights Act of 1965 passed. Martin Luther King Jr. Tolstoy Gandhi In the 1890s Tolstoy read Thoreau's essay "On the Duty of Civil Disobedience" and told his friend and publisher Vladimir Chertkoz that a translation of that work into Russian was desirable, Tolstoy's interest in Thoreau's works deepened with time. Leo Tolstoy saw the American thinker as his philosophical ally. This is also demonstrated by frequent references to Thoreau in Tolstoy's correspondence and works of literature. He was inspired by Thoreau in these following works: Anna Karenina, The Circle of Reading, The Path of Life and Thoughts for Everyday. Quotes Effect Martin Luther King Jr. believed that you should never be silent about things that have meaning to you, and in speaking out and fighting for the things you care about it, violence will only create more problems, and non violence actions are the only solution. Leo Tolstoy was born in 1828 in Yasnaya Polyana. He was born into a wealthy family, where he was the youngest of four boys. His mother died in 1830, when he was two years old, and his father died in 1837. In 1843, he began studying law at the University of Kazan, but ended up leaving in 1847. He then returned to his parents' estate, where he tried his hand at being a farmer. He ended up failing at being a farmhand, but did succeed in keeping a journal, which would be the start of a lifelong habit that would be the inspiration for many of his works. During the time that Tolstoy was failing at working on a farm, his older brother, Nikolay, came to visit while on military leave. Nikolay convinced Tolstoy to join the Army as a junker, at the same place he was stationed. He was eventually transferred to Sevastopol in Ukraine in November 1854, where he fought in the Crimean War through August 1855. Transcendentalism: In order to understand the ways of reality, we must first examine and analyze the reasoning process that rules the nature of experience. Transcendentalists believed that society and its institutions, mainly religion, ultimately corrupted the purity of the people. Gandhi was inspired by Thoreau. Gandhi looked at Thoreau like a teacher, while in South Africa he said "To American friends, you have given me a teacher in Thoreau, who furnished me though his essay on the 'Duty of Civil Disobedience' scientific confirmation of what I was doing in South Africa." In 1931, Roger Baldwin rode on a train with Gandhi; at that time Gandhi was reading Thoreau's book 'Civil Disobedience'. Roger talked to him about the extremeness of Thoreau's doctrines. Gandhi then replied that "the essay contained the essence of his political philosophy,not only as India's struggle related to the British, but as to his own views of the relation of the citizens to government. Martin Luther King Jr. was affected by the legacy of Thoreau's essay Civil Disobedience. Thoreau had coined this term which Gandhi and MLK both utilized. They both advocated for equality for mankind and were incarcerated for peaceful protests. Both MLK and Thoreau wrote influential works inspired by their time in jail. MLK wrote Letter from Birmingham Jail and Thoreau wrote Civil Disobedience. MLK could have been inspired due to Thoreau is this retrospect. 1828 Tolstoys' Parents Die Society Nature Leo Nikolayevich Tolstoy's Birth 1906 Mahatma Gandhi devoted his life to seeing peace and helping others see it. He was born on October 2, 1869 in Porbandar India and died on the January 30, 1948. He studied law in London, and in 1907 in South Africa he took part in the passive protest by refusing to comply with segregation rules on a South African train and was forcibly ejected at Pietermaritzburg. He protested the Transvaal government for seen years and in 1919 he protested Britain's mandatory military draft of Indians. By 1920, he was leader of the Indian Movement of Independence. He was jailed many times, and in protest fasted, but was released every time. Gandhi's persuasive methods of civil disobedience influenced leaders of civil rights movements around the world, especially Martin Luther King Jr. 1830-37 - March on Washington (August 28,1963), Birmingham (April 4,1963), Selma to Montgomery (March 25,1965), etc. - Pro-equality Sermons: The Birth of a New Nation, Loving your Enemies, How long, Not Long, etc. Tolstoy Drops Out of University 1847 Tolstoy Starts "Sevastopol Tales" 1854 Public Response
to civil disobedience Biography Many people responded to Thoreau's essay with admiration and interest. quite a few people in fact wrote essays themselves about Thoreau's work and discussed and supported his ideals. to this day civil disobedience is a literature treasure to many Americans. In Leo Tolstoy's "Writings on Civil Disobedience and Nonviolence", he refers to God as a force that resides within every human and that until we learn to communicate and act in a way that does not promote violence in others, only then will we ascend from our feudal ways. 1968 MLK was assassinated Beginning of Tolstoy's Philosophy on Civil Disobedience During Tolstoy's time serving in the Crimean War, he witnessed the deaths of thousands of Russians, and watched as their bodies were left behind, by their former comrades, to rot. Tolstoy felt very depressed, as well as angered, by this scene of slaughter, and this was to be the start of Tolstoy's feelings regarding civil disobedience and nonviolence. Thus, Leo Tolstoy was greatly interested by the ethical teachings of Jesus; specifically, his Sermon on the Mount. Through Jesus' teachings, Tolstoy realized that humans were always trying to solve violent problems with more violence, and resist evil with evil; this would only result in more anger in violence. So, to fix this cycle of violence, evil, and anger, Tolstoy felt that it would have to be overpowered by a cycle of love, forgiveness, and sacrifice. Gandhi and Tolstoy 1963 March on Washington Philosophy NAACP is formed Tolstoy sent the famous "Letter to a Hindu" to Tarak Nath Das in 1908. This letter was in response to letters that Das sent, and they were used to express Tolstoy's support for Indian freedom from British rule. This letter argued that the principle of love and nonviolence, in the form of strikes, protests, and other ways of peaceful resistance could free the Indian people. The letter attracted the attention of Gandhi. This initiated a string of correspondence between Gandhi and Tolstoy, in which Gandhi asked for advice, and the the permission to print the letter in a South African newspaper, Indian Opinion. The views Tolstoy expressed in the letter helped shape Gandhi's views on nonviolent protest. 1909 Nonviolence: There can be degrees in violence, not in nonviolence. It must be the constant effort of a nonviolent activist to purge themselves of hatred toward the so-called enemy. There is no such thing as shooting out of love. Actions of Civil Disobedience The Salt March was one form of Gandhi's civil disobedience. At the time England had a monopoly over salt, which meant that the people in India were prohibited from producing it. It was also taxed highly so that people had to pay quite a lot for it. The Salt March was a way for Gandhi and the people of India to produce salt and distribute it throughout India without the taxes that England had put in place. This was an act of civil disobedience because it was a non-violent act that went against the British Empire.
Gandhi also fasted as a form of political device, he was protesting caste separation.

Hand woven cloth was something that Gandhi was a very large supporter of, India's textile business had once been booming until the British came in and destroyed it. So Gandhi told people to make their own woven cloth and to not buy any of the English product. He called the cloth khadi and he also spun his own yarn on a spinning wheel or charkha. Actions of Civil Disobedience 1910 Leo Tolstoy's Death - Brought about such legislation as The Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965 1967 Tolstoy's "Writings on
Civil Disobedience"published Mahatma Gandhi's Birth 1869 Gandhi realizes that
he wants to become an activist Effectiveness and Responses 1893 The Salt March was both effective and ineffective. It was ineffective because they did get caught and eventually were shut down, but it was effective because it caught England off guard because they were not used to India showing any sign of rebellion. England responded by jailing people and then threatening them. Plague hits India
Gandhi helps with sanitation 1896 Organizes first campaign of Satyagraha Hand woven cloth had been India's largest export until the Industrial Revolution gained power in England, which caused the English to destroy the whole of India's cloth spinning business. So Gandhi decided to only wear hand woven cloth as a form of protest against the English colonial practices that were occurring in India at that time. He gained a huge following from the poor and the former workers of that industry and they proceeded to make their own cloth. Salt March Gandhi's Death 1948 1930 In 1869, when War and Peace was published, Tolstoy was confronted with the realization that life had no meaning, seeing as how death was ultimately guaranteed. He could find nothing that gave life meaning, until 1879, when he took a chance to observe the peasants around him. During this time, he noticed that the peasants thought about and approached death with a sense of "calm and serenity". He wondered why this was so, but later realized that it was their faith that lead them to be this way. This gave Tolstoy inspiration to look to the Bible, hoping that he would be able to find a meaning to life in it. Tolstoy also took the time to write "The Kingdom of God is Within You". This novel was based around Tolstoy's Christian anarchist beliefs, and deals much with the principles of non-violent resistance when faced with violence, that he felt Jesus Christ had taught. Tolstoy's Philosophy of Civil Disobedience The majority of Tolstoy's philosophy of disobedience was derived from his interpretations of Jesus' teachings. So, when Jesus said to turn the other cheek, Tolstoy believed this to mean to abolish the violence, even if used in defense, and to give up the vengeance. Reactions/Results The most notable result of Tolstoy's actions of civil disobedience appear to be how he affected people with his book, "The Kingdom of God is Within You": specifically influencing the important 20th century figures: Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr. Many feel that this book directly influenced Gandhi's thoughts about nonviolence, so that makes Tolstoy stand out as a very influential figure in the nonviolent resistance movement to this day. Gandhi's Relationship/Inspiration from Thoreau, Tolstoy, and Martin Luther King Jr. Henry David Thoreau Martin Luther King Jr. Leo Tolstoy MLK adopted Gandhi's view on civil disobedience and he also called Gandhi's non violence way "The only moral and practically sound method open to oppressed people in their struggle for freedom" Leo Tolstoy and Gandhi shared similar views and philosophies, and also on truth and morality. Gandhi sent a letter to Tolstoy in 1909 and in the letter he described himself as one of Tolstoy's devoted followers.
"Law of Love"
A letter to a Hindu. Gandhi adopted Thoreau's idea about how people could refuse to cooperate with the government and used it as an inspiration/foundation for the concept Satyagraha (non-cooperation) "truth force" When Gandhi fasted it had an interesting effect, it was widely represented throughout world media outlets and people all over could see how he was coping, everyone except England because they had prohibited the printing of his picture in any newspapers because they feared that it would ensue a sense pity for him from the English community. One of the biggest responses to his acts of civil disobedience was just the shear number of supporters he gained doing the things that he did.
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