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Speech Community

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Adhe Ramadhani

on 29 November 2013

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Transcript of Speech Community

Speech Community
Definition
The principal unit of analysis in the ethnography of community is the speech community. A speech community is a group of speakers who share a language and patterns of language use.
John Gumperz
John Gumperz described how dialectologists had
taken issue with the dominant approach in historical
linguistics that saw linguistic communities as homogeneous
and localized entities in a way that allowed.
Gumperz defined the community of speech:
Any human aggregate characterized by regular and frequent interaction by means of a shared body of verbal signs and set off from similar aggregates by significant differences in language usage.
—Gumperz (1964)
Example: An example of a speech community is the group of English
language speakers throughout the World.
• Speech community is a group of people who share a set of rules and norms for communication and interpretation of speech.
Example: Such groups can be villages, countries, political
or professional communities, communities with shared interests,
hobbies, or lifestyles, or even just groups of friends.
Furthermore Gumperz refines the definition of the linguistic system shared by a speech community:
Regardless of the linguistic differences among them, the speech varieties employed within a speech community form a system because they are related to a shared set of social norms.
Gumperz (1964)
How do we measure an individual's
participation in the social
group/speech community?
1. Social Network
Analysis
Measuring network ties
Density and Multiplexity
2. Sociometrics
A way to measure
multiplexity
3. Network
Integration
Kinship, work, territory-based
activities, social groups,
physical proximity
4. Acts of
Identity
An individual creates for himself
the patterns
of his linguistic behavior
single set of rules for speaking:
single pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary
Part of these shared pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary
includes shared rules for evaluating (judging, perceiving,
interpreting) language use, which allows one to recognize
other speech community members
Focused Speech Community
one where there is wide agreement about the characteristics
of the shared language variety; a small town from which people
have not moved and into which people have not moved
would be likely focused with respect to the speech norm.
"Canadians often use the particle eh (as in It's nice, eh?) where Americans use huh. . . . As elsewhere, eh is used in Canada to mean Could you repeat what you said, but more commonly it is a question tag, as in You do want to go, eh? (=don't you?), or serves to elicit agreement or confirmation (It's nice, eh?) and to intensify commands, questions, and exclamations (Do it, eh?)."
(Tom McArthur, The Oxford Guide to World English. Oxford Univ. Press, 2002)
The examples in Indonesia is the traditional language in some areas, such as Irian Jaya, Flores, Toraja, Dayak, and other small areas in indonesia. Only people who live in that areas who know that languages, so the languages are not easy to widespread, because most of the society in those areas do not move and stay in their hometown.
Diffuse Speech Community
Diffuse Speech Community is one where there is a less-defined set
of characteristics of the shared language variety;
a large city where there are many different social classes and a great deal
of mobility would likely not have a particularly well-defined speech variety;
although people have a stereotypical view of what Bostonian is,
or how people in New York speak, these cities are actually
diffuse speech communities;
the members of the different communities within the cities have certain
characteristics in common (such as "r-dropping" in Boston),
but the smaller enclaves within the city have their own characteristics.
A Bostonian Accent
Park the Car at Harvard Yard
will become
Pahk the Cah At Hahvad Yahd.
Don't drop the "R"'s at the beginning
of the word (crisis remains crisis).
A Bostonian Accent
Pronouncing "O's" like "ahh".
A Bostonian Accent
Pronounce your "A's" like "ah".
A Bostonian Accent
Replace the ‘R’ where they
don't belong
'Boston'
becomes
'Bahhhst-inn'
'Octopus'
becomes 'Ahhctapus'.
Last [lehst] becomes lahst.
"The first shall be last" becomes
"The fihst shahll be lahst"
"He was drawing a picture"
becomes
"He was drawring a picture"
or more accurately,
"He was drawring a pitchah"
Full transcript