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Special Education Timeline

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Alexa DellaMonica

on 9 March 2014

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Transcript of Special Education Timeline

Special Education Timeline
Alexa DellaMonica SPED 302-001 March 10, 2014
1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
1954: Brown vs. Board of Ed
• Stated that segregated schools were unconstitutional
• Paved the way for integration in public schools and is considered one of the first laws indirectly supporting students with disabilities
• Demanded that all students have equal education opportunities that were not reliant on their race and therefore also their ability
1972 PARC vs. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
• “Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children”
• Very first right-to-education act officially regarding students with disabilities
• Established the standard that all children are offered an individualized education in the least restrictive environment
• PARC was replaced by the Education for all Handicapped Children Act in 1975

1973 Rehabilitation Act Section 504
• Extended civil rights to people with disabilities, specifically including education and employment
• Federal financial assistance programs must have Section 504 regulations and accommodations for people with disabilities
• Required reasonable accommodations for employees with disabilities
• Continued to enforce the importance of accessible new construction and alterations to discriminatory construction
1975 Education for all Handicapped Children Act
• Enforced Zero Reject and FAPE
• Nondiscriminatory identification and evaluation was enforced because many students were not being identified as disabled
• IEPs were designed to create a meaningful, production, individualized education experience for students with disabilities
• Stated that students with disabilities be educated in the least restrictive environment possible
• Incorporated more parent/guardian participation in the creation of IEPs
• “Due Process” allowed people the right to challenge disability programs in court hearings
1990 Americans with Disabilities Act
• Civil rights law that prohibited discrimination against people with disabilities
• Stated that there should be no discrimination involved with hiring or firing people with disabilities from their workplace
• Prohibits disability discrimination in the form of public entities and public transportation meaning that all public places must be accessible to all people
• Public accommodations and new construction must follow these guidelines for accommodation to all people effective in 1992
• Required that telecommunication companies take steps to ensure functionally equivalent services to those who are deaf, hard of hearing, or have speech impairments
1990 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
• Replaced Education of the Handicapped Act
• Requires that FAPE be available for students with disabilities
• Mandates the use of IEP and IFSP
• Promoted the involvement of the student’s family in their education
• Focus on child-first language, “individual with disabilities” rather than “handicapped child”
1997 IDEA Amendments
• Eliminates the word “serious” from the Emotional Disturbance category
• Outlaws placement of students with limited English in special education
• Expands “developmental delay” to include 6-9 year old students
• Demands that charter schools provide accommodations for students with disabilities
• Extends FAPE by requiring states to provide continuous education for students who are suspended or expelled for disciplinary reasons
• Strengthens the roles of parents/guardians in the IEP process
2001 No Child Left Behind
• Standardized testing in reading and math in grades 3-8
• Goal to close student achievement gaps
• Supposed to provide all students with an equal opportunity, but the tests are biased toward white middle class students
• Uses Adequate Yearly Progress to assess whether or not a school and its teachers are up to par
• All students, no matter their disability, had to reach the same standards by 2014
• 4 pillars: accountability, flexibility, research-based education, parent options
2004 IDEA Amendments
• Special education teachers have to be state certified and licensed with a bachelor’s degree
• New teachers have to meet the NCLB standards in at least one subject
• 100% of State Improvement Grant money go toward professional development as compared to 75% under IDEA 1997
• IEP “Short Term Objectives” changed to “Annual Measurable Goals”
• School-to-work transition plans for students with IEPs will begin at age 16
2005 Schaffer vs. Weast
• Parents sued school district under IDEA saying that their child’s IEP was inadequate
• Originally they won the case, but when it was brought to the Supreme Court it was reversed because of the burden of proof
• This “burden of proof” settlement set a precedent for future court cases regarding students with disabilities
• http://www.lawnix.com/cases/brown-board-education.html
• http://www.pilcop.org/pennsylvania-association-for-retarded-citizens-parc-v-commonwealth-of-pennsylvania/
• http://www2.ed.gov/policy/speced/reg/narrative.html
• http://sitemaker.umich.edu/356.zipkin/the_education_for_all_handicapped_children_act
• http://www.dol.gov/dol/topic/disability/ada.htm
• http://www.education.com/reference/article/individuals-disabilities-education-act/
• http://college.cengage.com/education/resources/res_prof/students/spec_ed/legislation/pl_105-17.html
• https://www.k12.wa.us/esea/NCLB.aspx
• http://www.afb.org/info/afb-national-education-program/jltli-2005-education-summary/summary-of-key-sections-of-the-idea-of-2004-pl-108-446/235
• http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/cert/04-698
Full transcript