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Twentieth-Century Music Timeline

MUS 526 - Summer 2012

Anna Stevens

on 9 September 2012

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Transcript of Twentieth-Century Music Timeline

Anna Stevens
Contemporary Music History
MUS 526 SUMMER 2012 Twentieth-Century Timeline Composers
Musical Events, Music of Other Cultures and Style Period Introductions
Non-musical events
Genres of Composition
Techniques of musical organization
Performance mediums Color Chart Bela Bartók
25 March 1881- 26 Sep 1925 1866-1925
Erik Satie

3 July 1878 - 5 Nov 1942
George M. Cohan

25 Mar 1881 - 26 Sept 1925
Bela Bartók

8 July 1882 - 20 Feb 1961
Percy Grainger

17 June 1882 - 6 Apr 1971
Igor Stravinsky

3 Oct 1882 - 29 Mar 1937
Karol Syzmanowski

16 Dec 1882 - 6 Mar 1967
Zoltán Kodály

22 Dec 1883 - 6 Nov 1965
Edgard Varèse

3 Dec 1883 - 15 Sept 1945
Anton Webern

27 Jan 1885 - 11 Nov 1945
Jerome Kern

9 Feb 1885 - 12 Dec 1935
Alban Berg

25 Jan 1886 - 30 Nov 1954
Wilhelm Furtwangler

16 Sept 18887 - 22 Oct 1979
Nadia Boulanger

11 May 1888 - 22 Sept 1989
Irving Berlin

23 Apr 1891 - 5 Mar 1953
Sergei Prokofiev

10 Mar 1892 - 27 Nov 1955
Darius Milhaud

21 Aug 1893 - 15 Mar 1918
Lili Boulanger

20 Jan 1894 - 12 Nov 1976
Walter Piston

16 Nov 1895 - 28 Dec 1963
Paul Hindemith

28 Dec 1896 - 16 Mar 1985
Roger Sessions

11 Mar 1897 - 10 Dec 1965
Henry Cowell

12 Feb 1898 - 1 Oct 1979
Roy Harris

6 Dec 1896 - 17 Aug 1983
Ira Gershwin

26 Sept 1898 - 11 July 1937
George Gershwin

7 Jan 1899 - 30 Jan 1963
Francis Poulenc

14 Nov 1900 - 2 Dec 1990
Aaron Copland

2 Mar 1990 - 3 Apr 1950
Kurt Weill

3 Aug 1900 - 2 Dec 1991
Ersnt Krenek

6 June 1903 - 1 May 1978
Aram Khachaturian

3 Feb 1904 - 19 Feb 1975
Luigi Dallapiccola

1 Mar 1904 - 14 Dec 1944
Glenn Miller

25 Sept 1906 - 9 Aug 1975
Dmitry Shostakovich

10 Dec 1908 - 27 Apr 1992
Oliver Messiaen

11 Dec 1908 - Present
Elliott Carter

30 May 1909 - 13 June 1986
Benny Goodman

4 Aug 1910 - 15 Feb 1992
William Schuman

7 July 1911 - 1 Feb 2007
Gian Carlo Menotti

5 Sept 1912 - 12 Aug 1992
John Cage

22 Nov 1913 - 4 Dec 1976
Benjamin Britten

6 May 1915 - 23 Jan 2009
George Perle

10 May 1916 - 29 Jan 2011
Milton Babbitt

25 Aug 1918 - 14 Oct 1990
Leonard Bernstein

7 Apr 1920 - Present
Ravi Shankar

4 Apr 1922 - 18 Aug 2004
Elmer Bernstein

?29 May 1922 - 4 Feb 2001
Iannis Xenakis

28 May 1923 - 12 Jun 2006
Gyorgy Ligeti

29 Jan 1924 - 8 May 1990
Luigi Nono

26 Mar 1925 - Present
Pierre Boulez

12 Jan 1926 - 3 Sept 1987
Morton Feldman

25 May 1926 - 28 Sept 1991
Miles Davis

1 July 1926 - Present
Hans Werner Henze

10 Jun 1928 - 13 Mar 1989
Carl Dahlhaus

22 Aug 1928 - 5 Dec 2007
Karlheinz Stockhausen

24 Oct 1929 - Present
George Crumb

26 Feb 1932 - 12 Sept 2003
Jonny Cash

23 Nov 1933 - Present
Krzysztof Penderecki

8 Sept 1934 - Present
Peter Maxwell Davies

27 Nov 1935 - Present
Helmut Lachenmann

11 Sept 1935 - Present
Arvo Part

24 June 1935 - Present
Terry Riley

28 Mar 1936 - Present
Bill Gaither

3 Oct 1936 - Present
Steve Reich

31 Jan 1937 - Present
Philip Glass

16 Mar 1937 - Present
David Del Tredici

16 Feb 1938 - Present
John Corigliano

26 May 1938 - Present
William Bolcom

9 Jun 1938 - Present
Charles Wuorinen

6 Sept 1938 - Present
Joan Tower

10 Feb 1939 - Present
Roberta Flack

7 Jul 1940 - Present
Ringo Starr

9 Oct 1940 - 8 Dec 1980
John Lennon

24 Jan 1941 - Present
Neil Daimond

24 May 1941 - Present
Robert Zimmerman
(Bob Dylan)

13 Oct 1941 - Present
Paul Simon

5 Nov 1941 - Present
Art Garfunkel

4 Mar 1942 - Present
Gloria Gaither

25 Mar 1942 - Present
Aretha Franklin

18 Jun 1942 - Present
Paul McCartney

20 Nov 1942 - Present
Meredith Monk

10 Jan 1943 - 20 Sept 1973
Jim Croce

25 Feb 1943 - 29 Nov 2001
George Harrison

31 Dec 1943 - 12 Oct 1997
John Denver

28 Jan 1944 - Present
John Tavener

19 Jan 1946 - Present
Dolly Parton

17 Jun 1946 - Present
Gerard Grisey

15 Feb 1947 - Present
John Adams

11 Mar 1947 - Present
Tristan Murail

25 Mar 1947 - Present
Elton John

5 Jun 1947 - Present
Laurie Anderson

3 May 1950 - Present
Stevie Wonder

30 Jan 1951 - Present
Phil Collins

2 Sept 1953 - Present
John Zorn

21 Oct 1953 - 28 Jul 1982
Keith Green

29 Aug 1958 - 25 Jun 2009
Michael Jackson

5 Jun 1961 - 22 Feb 2006
Anthony Burger

17 Jan 1971 - Present
Kid Rock
(Robert Ritchie)

14 Oct 1978 - Present
Usher Raymond IV

4 Sept 1981 - Present
Beyonce Knowles

28 Mar 1986 - Present
Stefani Germanotta
(Lady GaGa)

13 Dec 1989 - Present
Taylor Swift Musical Events including Style Periods and Music of Other Cultures
Thomas Edison invents dound recording

Thomas Edison patents phonograph

Carnegie Hall opens in New York
Puccini's Opera "Tosca" in Rome

Rachmoninoff Piano Concerto no. 2

Dvorak's Opera "Rusalka" in Prague

Verdi died

Ragtime jazz develops in US

Wigmore Hall opens in London
Elgar composes his first "Pomp and Cirumstance"

Debussy's Opera "Pelleas et Melisande" in Paris

Frederick Delius' "Appalachia"

Leo Blech's comic opera "Das War Ich" in Dresden

Sebilius - Symphony no. 2

Enrico Caruso records on phonograph for the first time


Oscar Hammerstein built Manhattan Opera House in New York

Elgar's oratorio "The Apostles" in Birmingham

Very first recording of an opera - Verdi's "Ernani"

Puccini's opera "Madame Butterfly" in Milan

First transmission of music over radio at Graz. Austria

London Symphony Orchestra established

Richard Strauss' operal "Salome" in Dresden

First American opera produced in Europe - Coerne's "Zenobia"

Albert Schweitzer - "J. S. Bach"

Sir Thomas Beecham debuts as conductor in London

George M. Cohan produces "Forty-five Minutes from Broadway" NY

Ethel Smyth's opera "The Wreckers" in Leipzig

Mozart Festival in Salzburg

Interets on Europe's central music sparked by publication of the book by Bartok and Kodal "Hungarian Fold Songs"

Gustav Mahler's Symphony No. 8 in E-flat major

First staging of "Ziegfeld Follies" in New York

Korngold composes first stage work "The Snowman" at age 11

Oskar Straus' operetta "The Chocolate Soldier"

Richard Strauss' opera "Elektra" in Dresden

Ralph Vaughan Williams' Fantasia on a Theme of Tallis"

Stravinsky's ballet "The Firebird" in Paris

Beecham's first season of opera at Covent Garden in London

Maassenet's opera "Don Quichotte" in Monte Carlo

The Tango becomes popular in U.S. and Europe

Victor Herbert's American operetta "Naughty Marietta" in New York
Irving Berlin's "Alexander's Ragtime Band"

Lehar's opera "Eva" in Vienna

Stravinsky's ballet "Petrouchka" in Paris

Emile Jaques-Dalcroze founded institutions for the teaching of
eurhythmics at Hellerau, Germany

Maruice Ravel's ballet "Daphnis and Chloe" in Paris

Delius composed "On Hearing the First Cuckoo in Spring"

Schoenberg's song cycle "Pierrot Lunaire" in Berlin

Leopold Stokowski named conductor of the Philadelphia Symphony Orchestra"

De Falla's opera "Vida Breve" in Nice

Scriabin's symphonic poem "Prometheus" in Moscow

Jack Judge composes song "Tipperary"

Irving Berlin's "Watch Your Step" in New York

Beniamino Gigli debuts as Italian tenor

ASCAP (American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers) founded

Max Reger's "Mozart Variations" Op. 32

Rouget de Lisle (Composer of "La Marseillaise") remains taken to Invalides, Paris

Max von Schillings' opera "Mona Lisa" in Stutgart

Classic new Orleans jazz begins to bloom

Novello composes "Kee the Home Fires Burning"

Jazz sweeps the U. S.

Leo Fall's operetta "Die Rose von Stambul" in Vienna

Charles Ives finishes his Fourth Symphony

Hans Pfitzner's opera "Palestrina" in Musich

Chicago becomes world's jazz center

George M. Cohan writes "Over There" American war song

Dixieland Jass Band opens in New York's Reisenweber's Restaurant and also made the first jazz recording

"Les Six" beomes a group

Jerome Kern's "Rock-a-Bye Baby" in New York

Irving berling's "Yip Yip Haphank" in New York

Franz Schreker's opera "Die Gezeichneten" in Frankfurt

Igor Stravinsky's "Histoire du soldat" in Lausanne

New York Philharmonic bans compositions by German composers

Karl Muck, German conductor, arrested as enemy aliem

Paris Opera opens Gounod's "Faust"

Latvian National Opera founded in Riga

Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge debuted her first music festival in Pittsfield Mass.

Jazz arrives in Europe

Harry Tierney's "Irene" in New York

Edgar Varese conducts New York New Symphony Ochestra's first concert of modern music

A. D. Julliard died leaving 20 million dollard to endow Julliard School of Music, New York

Christmas Radio Concert from Germany

Maurice Ravel's "La Valse"

Paul Whiteman and band tours Europe

Ralph Vaughan Williams' final version of "London Symphony"

Gustav Holst's first complete performance of "The Planets" in London

Irving Berlins' first "music Box Revues" New York

Paul hindemith's one-act oepras "morder, hoffnun der Frauen" and "Das nusch-nuschi" in Stutgart

Brittain's Musicians' Union founded in London

Sergeri Prokofiev's opera "The Love for Three Oranges" in Chicago

Teatro all Scala opens under Arturo Toscanini

"Die Walkure" became first Wagnerian opera staged at Paris Opera since before the war

Festical of Contemporary music at Donaueschingen

Louis Armstrong joins Joe King Oliver's band in chicago after arriving from New Orleans

Faul Hindemith's one-act opera "Sancta Susanna" in Frankfurt

I. S. C. M. (International Society for Contemporary Music)
formed in Salzburg

"Bix" Beiderbecke organizes jazz band in Chicago

Manuel de Falla's "Master Peter's Puppet Show"

George Gershqin's "Rhapsody in Blue"

Popular songs "Yes, We Have No Bananas; "
"Tea for two:" and "I Want to Be Happy"

Bessie Smith ("Queen of the Blues") records her first song

Alban Berg "Chamber Concerto" written for Arnold Schoenberg

Juilliard School opens in New York

Arnold Schoenberg's "Erwartung" monodrama in Prague

Jean Sebelius' Symphony No. 7 in C Major Op. 105

Igor Stravinski's Piano Concerto

Alban Berg's "Wozzeck" in Berlin

Aaron Copeland's Symphony for Organ and Orchestra

Chicago style jazz arrives in Europe

James Johnson "The Book of American Negro Spirituals"

Franz Lehar's Operetta "Paganini"

Dmitri Shostakovich's Symphony No. 1

Aaron Copeland awarded first Guggenheim Fellowship

Bela Bartok's Ballet "The Miraculous Mandarin" in Cologne

Duke Ellington's first records appear

Arthur Honegger's opera "Judith" in Monte Carlo

Zoltak Kodaly "Hary Janos"

Giacamo Puccini's "Turandot"

Siegfried Wagner's opera "The Angel of Peace"

Karlsruhe Kurtweill's opera "The Protagonist" in Dresden

Aaron Copeland's "Concerto for Piano and Orchestra" premiers, Boston Symphony Orchestra

George Gershwin's "Funny Face" in New York

Alois Haba develops theory of quarter-tone harmony

Ernst Krenek's "Jonny Spielt Auf" in Leipzig

Rdogers and Hart's "A Conneticut Yankee" in New York

Lev Theremin invents the earliest electronic musical instrument

Igor Stravenski's "Oedipus Rex" in Paris

George Gershwin's "An American in Paris" in New York

Igor Stravinski's ballet "Apollo Musagetes"

Toscanini named conductor New York Philharmonic Symphony Orchestra

Bertolt Brecht and Kurt Weill's "Die Dreigroschenoper" premiers in Berlin

Aaron Copeland's "Symphonic Ode"

George Gershiwin's "Show Girl"

Oxford History of Music begins to appear

Cole Porter "Fifty Million Frenchmen"

BBC Symphony Orchestra formed
Director, Sir Adrian Bolt

Leos Janacek's opera "From the House of the Dead"

Arnold Schoenberg's opera "Von Heute auf Morgen"

Igor Stravinski's "Symphony of Psalms"

Friedrich Trautwein invents the Trautonium, an electronic instrument

Kurt Weill's studetns' opera "Der Jasager"

Popular songs: "Georgia on My Mind," "I Got Rhythm,"
"Body and Soul"

George Dyson's oratorio "The Canterbury Pilgrims"

Gershwin, Kaufman, and Ryskind win Pulitzer Prize "Of the Icing"

William Grant Still's "Afro-American Symphony"

Edgar Varese's "Ionisation"

Francis Scott Key's text put to "Anacreon in Heaven" becomes U. S. National Anthem "Star-Spangled Banner"

Sir Thoms Beecham founds Lodon Philharmonic Orchestra

Maurice Ravel's "Piano Concerto in G Major"

Arnold Schoenberg completes two acts of opera "Moses and Aaron"

Aaron Copeland's "The Short Symphony

Sergei Prokofiev returns to the U. S. S. R.

Benjamin Britten's "Fantasy Quartet Op. 2" performed at Florence Festival of the International Society for Contemporary Music

Paul Hindemith's symphony "Mathis der Maler"

Cole Porter's "Anything Goes" in New York

Dmitri Shostakovich's opera "Lady Macbeth of Mzensk" in Moscow

Rachmaninoff's "Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini"

Popular Songs: "Blue Moon," "All Through the Night"

Electric Hammond Organ becomes popular in U.S.

Gershwin's opera "Porgy and Bess" in New York

Jazz becomes Swing

Samuel Barber's Symphony No. 1 in Rome

Rdogers and Hart's muscial comedy "Babes in Arms"

Carl Orff's "Carmina Burana"

Isreal Philharmonic Orchestra founded in Tel-Aviv

Popular Songs: "The Lady is a Tramp," "It's Nice Work if You Can Get It," "Whistle While You Work"

New style brought to jazz music by Benny Goodman

Negro singer Marian Anderson recieves honorary
doctorate from Harvard University

Foy Acuff joins Grand Ole Opry
-brings national recognition to the Nashville-based radio program

Rachard Strauss' opera "Daphne" in Munich

Werner Egk's opera "Peer Gynt" in Berlin

Popular songs: "A Tisket, A Tasket," "Jeepers Creepers," "September Song," and "You Must Have Been A Beautiful Baby"

Rodgers and Hart's "The Boys from Syracuse"

Aaron Copland's ballet "Billy The Kid" in New York

Myra Hess organizes National Gallery concerts, London

War songs in England: "Roll Out the Barrell," "Hang out the Washing on the Siegfried Line," "The Last Time I Saw Paris"

War songs in Germany: "Wir fahren gegen England," "Bomben auf England," and "Lili Marlene"

Carl Orff's fairy-tale opera "Der Mond"

Cole Porter's musical comedy "Du Barry Was a Lady" in New York

Popular Songs: "God Bless America," "Three LIttle Fishes,"and "Over The Rainbow."

Irving Berlin's "Louisianna Purchase"

Stravinsky's Symphony in C major

Composers including Schoenberg, Stravinsky, Bartok, Hindemith, Krenek, Milhaud, Martinu, Weill, Toch, Kalman, Benatzky, Abraham, Stolz, and Oskar Straus move to the U. S.

Duke ellington known as composer and Jazz pianoist

Popular songs: "Oh, Jonny," "When You Wish Upon A Star," and "You Are My Sunshine"

Roy Harris' "Folk Song Symphony" in Boston

Popular Songs: "Deep in the HEart of Texas," "Chattanooga Choo-Choo," "I Got It Bad and That Ain't Good"

Benjamin Britten's "Sinfonia da Requiem"

Aaron Copland's "Rodao" in New York

First gold record created when RCA Victor sprayed gold over Glenn Miller's "Chattanooga Choo Choo"

Randall Thomposon's opera "Solomon and Balkis" premieres over radio

Irving Berlin's "White Christmas"

Popular Songs: "White Chrismas," "Praise the Lord and Pass the Ammnition," "Paper Doll," and "That Old Black Magic"

Rodgers and hammerstein'g "Oklahoma!" in New York - special Puliter Prize

Silliam Schuman's "Secular Cantata No. 2 , A Free Song" wins first Pulitzer Prize for music

Schoenberg's "Ode to Napoleon"

Popular Songs; "Mairzy Doats," "People Will Say We're in Love," and "Comin' in on a Wing and a

Aaron Copland's "Appalachian Spring" danced by Martha Graham in Washington, D.C., Pulitzer Prize

Oxford University establishes faculty of music

Richard Strauss' opera "Die Liebe der Danae" hehearsed but canceled as Nazis closed theatres

Leonard Bernstein's "On the Town" in New York

Prokofiev's opera "War and Peace" in Moscow

Popular songs; "Rum and Coca-Cola," and "Sentimental Journey"

Richard Staruss' "Metamorphosen"

Zoltan Kodaly's "missa Brevis"

Prokofiev's ballet "Cinderella" in Moscow

Rodgers and Hammerstein's musical comedy "Carousel" in New York

Benjamin Britten's "Peter Grimes" premier in London signals the rebirth of British opera

Salzburg Festival reopens

Irving Berlin's "Annie Get Your Gun" in New york

Pablo Casals promises not to play in public if Franco is in power

Carl Orff'sa "Die Bernaurein" in stuttgart

Popular songs: "I'll Dance at Your Wedding"

Gian Carlo Menotti's operas "The Medium," and "The Telephone" in New York

Olivier Messiaen's "Turangalila-Symphony"

Britten's new version of "Beggar's Opera" in Cambridge

Columbia Rcords introduces 33 1/3 LP record

Arnold Schoenberg's "Survivor from Warsaw"

Cole Porter's musical comedy "Kiss Me, Kate" in New York

Popular songs; "All I Want ffor Christmas Is my Two Front Teeth," And "Buttons and Bows"

The Samba becomes fasionable

Theodor W. Adorno "Philosophie der neuen Musik"

Kurt Weill's "Lost in the Stars" New York

Rodgers and mahherstein's "South Pacific" New York

45 rpm records sold in U.S.

Popular songs: "Bali Ha'i," "Diamonds Are a Girl's Best Friend,"

Gian Carlo Menotti's opera "The Consul" Pulitzer Priz,e New York

International Bach Year honos J. S. Bach

"Cool jazz" developed from bebop

Popular songs: "Ragg Mopp," "A Bushel and a Peck," and "Mona Lisa"

Howard Swanson's "Short Symphony" New York

Aaron Copland's "Clarinet Concerto" premiered by Benny Goodman and NBC Symphony Orchestra

R. Vaughan Williams' opera "The Pilgrims Progress" in London

Robert Matthew builds Royal Festival Hall, London

Rodgers and Hammerstein's "The King and I" New York

Gian Carlo Menotti's opera written on commission for NBC-TV "Amahl and the Night Visitors"

Popular Songs: "Come On-a My House," "In the Cool, Cool, Cool of the Evening," and "Kisses Sweeter Than Wine"

Hans Werner Henze's opera "Boulevard Solitude" in Hanover

Alexei Haieff, Piano Concerto

Popular Songs: "I Saw Mama Kissing Santa Claus," "Wheel of Fortune," and "It Takes Two to Tango"

Britten's opera "Gloriana" in London

R. Vaughan Williams' "Sinfonia antartica" No. 7 Manchester

Hindemith, "A Composer's World"

Karlheinz Stockhausen's "Electronic Study I"

Leonard Bernstein's musical "Wonderful Town" New York

William Shuman's opera "Mighty Casey" in Hartford

Popular songs: "Doggie in the Window," "Stranger in Paradise," and "I Love Paris"

Shoenberg's opera "Moses and Aaron" in Hamburg

Stravinsky's "Septet"

Roy Harris' Symphonic fantasy

Popular songs: "Mister Sandman," and "Hey, There"

Alder and Ross' musical comedy "Damn Yankees" in New York

Darius Milhaud's Symphony No. 6 in Boston

Popular songs: "Roch Around the Clock," "Whatever Lola Wants," "Sixteen Tons"

Lerner and Loewe's musical "My Fair Lady" in New York

Elvis Presley gains popularity as on eof the world's first rock stars

Bernstein's musical comedy "Candide" in New York

Popular songs: "Blue Suede Shoes," "Que Sera Sera," and "Dont be Cruel"

Carl Orff's Easter oratorio "Comoedia de Christi Resurrectione"

Hindemith's opera "Harmonie der Welt" in Munich

Francis Poulenc's opera "Dialogues des Carmelites" in Milan

Leonard Bernstein's musical "West Side Story" in New York

Meredith Wilson's "The Music Man" in New york

Popular Songs: "Young Love," and "Seventy-six Trombones"

Van Vliburn wins Moscow Tchaikovsky piano competition

Cha Cha Cha gains popularity

Pierre Boulez's cantat "Le Visage Nuptial"

Samuel Barber's opera"Vanessa" wins pulitzer Prize

Popular songs: "Catch A Falling Star," and Chanson d'Amour"

Alban Berg's opera "wozzeck" revived in New York

Theodor W. Adorno "Klangfiguren" Theory of Modern Music

Richard Rodgers' "The Sound of Music"

Popular Songs: "He's Got the Whole World in His Hand," "Everything's Coming Up Roses," "High Hopes," and "The Sound of Music"

Pierre Boulez's "Portrait de Mallarme"

Karlheinz Stockhausen "Konstake" for electronic sounds

Benjamin Britten's opera "A Midsummer Night's Sream" in Aldeburgh

Lionel Bart's "Oliver!"

Popular songs: "Itsy Bitsy Teenie Weenie Yellow Polka Dot Bikini," "Never on Sunday," and "Calcutta"

Luigi Nono's opera "Intoleranza"

Popular songs: "Moon River,"and "Exodus,"

Britten's "War Requiem"

Shostakovick finished his twelfth symphony

Robert Ward's "The Crucible" gains pulitzer PRize

Popular songs: "Go Away, Little Girl," and "Blowin' in the Wind"

Menotti's "Labyrinth"

Joan Baez and Bob Dylan gain popularity

Samuel Barber's Piano Concerto No. 1 wins Pulitzer Prize

Gustav Mahler's Symphony No. 10 completed by Deryck Cooke

Karlheinz Stochkausen's "Plus/Minus"
jerry Herman's "Hello, Dolly" in new York

Popular songs: "I Want to Hold your Hand,," and "Chim Chim Cheree"

Leonard Bernstein's oratorio "Chichester Psalms"

Private commercial stations established oof Brittish coast

Boris Blacher's ballet "Tristan und Isolde"

Popular songs: "Downtown," and "A Hard Day's Night"

William Schuman's ballet "The Witch of Eendor" in New York

Harry Freedman's "Rose Latulippe" in Stratford
first full-length Canadian ballet

40th World Music Festival of ISCM held in Stockholm

Josef Matthias Hauer's opera "Die Schwarze Spinne" in Vienna

The new Metropolitan Opera House opens

Popular songs: "Born Free," "Eleanor Rigby," and "Strangers in the Night"

Willard Stright's opera "toyon of Alaska" in Anchorage as celebration of the purchase of Alaska from Russia

Barbra Streisand sings in New york for 135,000

Masteroff, Kander, and Ebb's musical "Cabaret" opens in New York

Jean Louis Barrault produces "Carmen" at metropolitan Opera

Aretha Franklin competes for popularity with Jimi Hendrix

Popular songs: "Hey Jude," and "Cinderella Rochefella"

Pierre Boulez conducts 16 concerts with New York Philharmonic

Olivier Messiaen's oratorio "The Transfiguration"

Woodstock Music and Art Fair in New York has more than 300,000 enthusiasts

Kripps conducts Walton's "Improvisations on an Impromptu of Benjamin Britten" in San Francisco

Duke Ellington holds sacred concert at Saint-Sulpice Church inHharlem, New York City

"Fiddler on the Roof" is longest running musical in Broadway history
Krzysztof Penderecki's symphony "Utrenja" in New York

Mahalia Jackson famous (Gospel singer) dies
Lleonard Bernstein's "Mass" in Washington, D.C.

Goeran Gentele appointed manager of metropolitan Opera

Benjamin Britten's "Death in Venice" in Aldeburgh England

Sarah Caldwell is first woman conductor of the Metropolitan Opera, in New York

Charles Ives and Arnold Schoenberg's centennials works are performed

George Rochberg's "Concerto for Violin and Orchestra" premiered by Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra dn isaac stern

Musicians' strike closes 12 Broadway musicals for 25 days

Berlioz's opera "Benvenuto Cellini" premieres in America in Boston

George Crumb's "Makrokosmos II"

Gian carlo Menotti's opera "The Hero" in Philadeplphia

Elvis Presley dies

U.S.S.R. uses new text for national anthem after 20 years of which the anthem could not be sung due to it's praises of Joseph Stalin

Composer and Cellist Mstislav Rostropovich and his wife, soprano Galina Vishnevskaya are revoked their citizenships by the Soviet Union

Krzysztof Penderecki's opera "Paradise Lost" in Chicago

Disco become popular

29 Italian opera house managers, directors, and agents arrested for allege "corruption in the opera world"

Samuel Barber's "Third Essay for Orchestra"

Michael Tippett's opera "The Ice Break"

Joseph Schwantner's "Aftertone of Infinity" wins Pulitzer Prize

A peak in Utah is named "Mount Messiaen" in celebration of Oliver Messiaen's 70th birthday

John Lennon was shot dead by Mark Chapman in new York

Popular songs: "Sailing," "The Rose"

New York City Ballet stages popular Tchaikovsky Festival

Toronto an, Aarhus, and the Barbican Center open new concert halls

New operas: Luciano Beria's "La Vera Storia," Bernard Herrmann's
"Wuthering Heights," and Stephen Paulus's "The Postman Always Rings Twice"

U. S. Festival at San Bernardino, CA, has 400,000 + attenders in the audience

Unkown chamber symphony by Mozart (age 9) discovered in Odense, Denmark

Messiaen's first opera "Saint Francis of Assisi" preiers in Paris

Karen Carpenter dies (birth 1951)

U. S. Festival in Southern California attracts 725,000

Popular songs: "Beat It," "Thriller," "Every Breath You Take," and "Can't Slow Down"

Marvin Gaye shot dead by father

New York Metropolitan Oepra's centennial season has it's first performance of Handl's opera Rrinaldo"

John Scott wins J. S. Bach International Organ Competition in Leipzig

Michael jackson wins unprecedented eight Grammy Awards for the album "Thriller" (over 37 million copies sold)

Canada holds their first International String Quartet Competition and was won by the Colorado Quartet

U. S. A. for Africa records Ethiopian benefit song, "We Are the World" written by Lionel Richie and Micheal Jackson

Elliot Carter awarded the National Medal of Arts of the U. S.

Xue Wei from China wins the Carl Flesch International Violin Competition

Grawemeyer Award for distinction in music coposition goes to Witold Lutoslawski

International Women's Festival of Music held in Beer-Sheva, Israel

The most extensive festival yet to celebrate Leonard Bernstein is mounted at Barbican, London

Unknown score by Edward Elgar found in a drawer in Bournemouth, England

Alun Hoddinot composes "The Silver Hound" a song-cycle for tenor and piano

"The Phantom of the Opera" world premieres in London - Michael Crawfor is the lead

"Les Miserables" wins eight Tony awards on Broadway

Ozzy Osbourne unsuccessfully sued by parents of a man who show himself after listening to Osbourne's "Suicide Solution"

Whitney Houston and Madonna hold popularity diva standards

Amadeus String Quartet splits up after viola player Peter Schidlof dies

A notebook of Mozarts symphonies 22-30 auctions for $4 million

Stephen Sondheim's "Into the Woods" premiers on Broadway

Popular songs: "Graceland," "Bad," and "Higher Love"

A group of small, London-based labels coin the term "world music" and help record sellers find rack space for the eclectic music, thus making room for the African, Latin American, and other genres

Boston hosts festival of Soviet music

Jean-Michel Jarre holds a concert in Dondon's Docklands with fireworks and lasers

Popular songs: "Don't Worry Be Happy," and "Faith"

Claudio Abbado appointed as cheif conductor at Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra

The 1990 Dance Biennial in France has the largest gather of U.S. dance companies

Contemporary Christian artist and songwriter Anna Stevens is born.

Rap is all the rage Non-musical Events
Relief of Mafeking

King Umberto I of Italy murdered
-son Victor Emmanual III succeeded him

Commonwealth of Australia created

William McKinley re-elected as U.S. President

Edmund Barton becomes first Prime Minister of the Commonwealth of Australia

Queen Victoria dies
-son Edward VII succeeds her

U.S. Presiden McKinley assassinated by anarchist
-Theodore Roosevelt succeeds him

Anglo-German alliance negotiations end

Social Revolutionary Party founded in Russia

Treaty of Vereeniging ends Bore War, Orange Free State becomes British Crown Colony

Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria, Italy) renews for 6 years

U.S. gains control over Panama Canal

Arthur Balfour named British Prime Minister

British take control of Northern Nigeria

The Russian Social Democratic Party divides into Mensheviks and Bolsheviks

Wqr breaks out between Russia and Japan

Theodore Roosevelt wins U.S. Presidential election

Bloody Sunday in Russia

Imperial Duma, the Russian Parliament is brought into existence

Treaty of Portsmouth ends Russian/Japanese war

First worker's soviet formed in St. Petersburg

Norwegian Parliament separates from Sweeden

Theodore Roosevelt is re-elected as U.S. President

Henry Campbell-Bannerman named Prime Minister of Britain

Algeciras Conference allows France and Spain control of Morroco

First meeting of Russian Duma in May

President Theodore Roosevelt takes first trip outside U.S. by a President in office

Japanese emmigration to U.S. banned by President Theodore Roosevelt

United Methodist Church established in Britain

Peace Conference at the Hague

Oklahoma becomes America's 46th State

Czar Nicholas II takes Rasputin into his court

Run on banks caused by the Panic of 1907

Pavlov studies conditioned reflexes

Olympic games in London

Ford Motor Co. produces first Model T

William Howard Taft becomes President of U.S.

Lenin writes "Materialism and empiric Criticism"

T. H. Morgan begins research in genetics

Establishment of Rockefeller Sanitary Commission

King Edward VII dies
-George V succeeds him

The Mann Act passed by Congress

China abolishes slavery

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People established (NAACP)

Marie Curie writes "The Treatise on Radiography"

The "weekend" becomes popular in U.S.

German gunboat "Panther" arrives in Agadir; international crisis ensues

Winston S. Churchill names First Lord of the Admiralty

Marie Curie awarded Nobel Prize for Chemistry

Rutherford creates theory of atomic structure

First practical electric automobile self-starter invented by U.S. Kettering

New Mexico and Arizona join the U.S.

Woodrow Wilson wins U.S. Presidency

Triple alliance renewed

Lenin and Stalin take over editorship of "Pravda"

F. Oppenheimer writes "The Social Problem and Socialism"

Britain establishes Royal Flying Corps

The S. S. Titanic sinks

Stockholm hosts Olympic Games

U.S. 16th Ammendment introduces Federal income tax

Woodrow Wilson wins Presidential election

Balkan War

Establishment of U.S. Federal Reserve system

Vitamin A is isolated

Zippers become popular

Foxtrot comes into fashion

Assemblyline techniques used in Henry Ford's factory

Rockefeller Institute founded

World War I begins

Archduke Ferdinand and wife assassinated

German/Russian armistice signed

U.S. declares war on Austria and Hungary

Turks surrender Jerusalem

Mata Hari executed as a spy

Woodrow Wilson is re-elected as U.S. President

Woodrow Wilson 14 points for world peace

1,388 planes of the German Luftwaffe assembled for attack

Germany bombs Paris

President Wilson demands that Germany and Austria retreat to their own territory before Armistice is signed; they agree

Czechoslovakia declares independence

Allies sign armistice with Austria-Hungary

Allied conference at Versailles

Armistice signed between allies in Germany; German fleet surrenders

Ex-Czar Nicholas II and family executed

Austria becomes a republic

Billy Graham born

Daylight Savings time introduced

Worldwide influenza epidemic

18th Amendment declares prohibition in America

President Wilson presides over first League of Nation meeting in Paris

Soviet government formed in Budapest

German peace treaty signed at Versailles

Race riots in Chicago

Church assembly established by British Parliament

John Watson writes "Psychology from the Standpoint of the Behaviorist"

Thomas Morgan writes "The Physical Basis of Heredity"

Lady Astor - first woman elected to British Parliament

Woodrow Wilson receives Nobel Peace Prize

U.S. votes against joining League of Nations

19th Amendment grants American women suffrage

End of Russian Civil War

Adolf Hitler announces 25 point program at Hofbrauhaus in Munich

Samuel Alexander writes "Spacetime and Deity"

Babe Ruth sold to the Yankees

Billy Sunday dies

Winston Churchill becomes Colonial secretary

Hitler's "storm troopers" begin terrorizing political opponents

Freiderich Bergius hydrogenates coal to oil

Thomas Morgan postulates Chromosome Theory of Heredity

U.S. and japan sign Naval agreement

Germany and U.S.S.R. sign treaty of Rapallo

Mussolini marches on Rome and forms fascist government

Soviet states form U.S.S.R.

John Dewey writes "Human nature in Conduct"

Herbert Hoover writes "American Individualism"
Pope Benedict XV dies
-succeeded by Pope Pius XI

Germany abandons passive resistance

Wilhelm Marx becomes German Chancellor

200,000 members attended Tri-state conclave of the Ku Klux Klan in Indiana

King Tutankahamen's tomb is discovered

Prohibition enforcement repealed in New York

Sigmund Freud writes "The Ego and the Id"

Fritz Mauthner writes ""Atheism and It's History in the Western World"

Lenin dies

British recognition of U.S.S.R.

Hitler is sentenced to 5 years in prison and is released after 8 months

Calvin Coolidge elected U.S. President

J. Edgar Hoover appointed director of the what was later named the Federal Bureau of Investigation (F.B.I.)

Hindenburg elected President of Germany

Hitler publishes "Mein Kamph" and reorganizes the Nazi Party

United Church of Canada founded

Hebrew University founded in Jerusalem

Germany declares war on Russia and France, then invades Belgium

Britain declares war on Germany

Austria declares war on Russia

Montenegro and Serbia declare war on Germany

France and Britain declare war on Austria

Russia, France, and Britain declare war on Turkey

Russian invade Hungary

Pope Pius X dies
-succeeded by Pope Benedict XV

Charlie Chaplin in "Making A Living"

U.S. Federal trade commission established

Germans sink the "Lusitania"

Czar Nicholas II takes over command of Russian army

Albert Einstein - General Theory of Relativity

Battle of Verdun

Germany declares war on Portugal

Italy declares war on Germany

Hussein proclaimed "King of the Arabs"

Peace note sent from Germany to the Allies

Peace note sent to belligerents by Wilson

Woodrow Wilson re-elected as U.S. President

U.S. Purchases the Virgin Islands

Lionel Curtis writes "The Commonwealth of Nations"

Martin Buber writes "The Spirit of Judaism"

Margaret Sanger joins in opening of the first birth-control clinic

Germans withdraw on the Western front

February Revolution in Russia

U.S. and Cuba declare war on Germany

Albania declares independence

British Royal family renounces ALL German names and titles

China declares war on Germany and Austria

Pope Benedict XV writes peace note

Lenin appointed chief commissar

Battle at Cambrai
-first battle with tanks

Fascist Youth organizations founded in Italy and Germany

Queen Elizabeth II dies

Germany joins League of Nations

German economic system collapses "Black Friday"

Ivan Pavlov writes "Conditioned Reflexes"

Charles Lindbergh flies "Spirit of St. Louis" from New York to Paris non-stop

Herbert Hoover elected U.S. President

J. L. Baird demonstrates color television

Alexander Flemming discovers Penicillin

Hitler appoints Himmler "Reichsfuhrer S.S>"

Church of Scotland formed

"Black Friday" in U.S. American Stock Exchange collapses

Construction of Empire State Building in New York begins

Albert Einstein writes "About Zionism"

"Technocracy" becomes a matter of discussion (the absolute domination of technology)

U.S. President Hoover suggests a moratorium for the duration of one year on the repayment of war debts

German Nazi party is 800,000 strong

Jehovah's Witnesses formed from Interational Bible Students Association

The second Five Year Plan begins in the U.S.S.R.

Hitler runs in the presidential election in Germany and loses

Franklin D. Roosevelt wins U.S. presidential election

Hitler, born in Austria, receives German citizenship

Adolf Hitler appointed German Chancellor

The Nazis erect the first concentration camps in Germany

Boycott of Jews beings in Germany

U.S. 21st Amendment repeals prohibition

Hitler and Mussolini meet in Venice

German plebiscite votes for Hitler as "Fuhrer"

U.S.S.R. admitted into League of Nations

Japan renounces Washington treaties of 1922 and 1930

Nazis reintroduce compulsory military service

Nuremberg Laws against the Jews

Silver Jubilee celebrated in Britain

President Roosevelt signs U.S. Social Security Act

Sidney and Beatrice Webb write "Societ Communism: A New Civilization"

Robert Watson Watt builds Radar Equipment to detect aircraft

German Luftwaffe formed

King George V of England dies
-succeeded by King Edward VIII

Elections in German: Hitler wins 99% of the vote

Arab High Committee formed, combats Jewish claims

Rome--Berlin Axis declared by Hitler and Mussolini

John Starchy writes "The Theory and Practice of Socialism"

Hindenberg Disaster: dirigible "Hindenberg," after transatlantic flight, lands in Lakehurst, New Jersey where it caught fire and was destroyed

George VI crowned King of Great Britain: ceremony is broadcast worldwide

F.D. Roosevelt signs U.S. Neutrality Act

Neville Chamberlain becomes Prime Minister of Britain

U.S. Supreme Court establishes minimum wage laws for women

Aldous Huxley writes "Ends and Means"

Protestant parson, Martin Niemoller, sent to a concentration camp by Hitler

First jet engine is built

Hitler appoints himself German War Minister

Martin Dies named chairman of the House Un-American Activities Committee in the U.S.

Roosevelt requests $552 million for defense and demands assurance against attack on the 31 United States from Hitler and Mussolini

Royal visit from King George VI and Queen Elizabeth to the U.S.

Women and children are evacuated from London

World War II

U.S. declares amnisty

Churchill named First Lord of the Admiralty

Bacon, butter, sugar rationed in Britain

Winston Churchill comes British Prime Minister and gives his "Blood, toil, tears, and sweat" speech

RAF begins night bombimg of Germany

Blitzkrieg, German "Lightening War," raids being in London

T. D. Roosevelt re-elected U.S. President

Penicillin developed as a practical antibiotic

German air raids on London are resumed

Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor

U.S. and Britain declar war on Japan

U.S. savings bonds and stamps are sold

U.N. Achieves world-wide prominence

Japanese defeat ed by Americans at Midway

The murder of millions of Jews in gas chambers begins

Keynes announces his plan for an international currency union

U.S. Supreme Court reverses a 1940 ruling and states children need not salute the American flag in their schools if it is against their religious beliefs

Heavy air raids on London continue


Roosevelt elected for a fourth term as U.S. President

Battle of the Bulge begins

Franklin D. Roosevelt dies
-Harry S. Truman succeeds him as President

Mussolini is murdered by Italiam partisans

Adolf Hitler commits suicide

V.E. Day ends war in Europe

Attlee voted British Prime Minister

U.S. drops atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

V.J. Day: Japan surrenders, ending World War II

Churchill gives his "Iron Curtain" speech

Verdict in Nuremberg Tribunal

Pope Pius XII creates 32 new cardinals

Electronic Brain built at Pennsylvania University

U.N. permanent headquarters established in New York City

Rights of U.S. Labor Unions restricted by Taft-Hartley Act of Congress

Dead Sea Scrolls discovered

U.S. Airplane first to fly at supersonic speed

+1 million American war vetrans enroll in college as a result of the G.I. Bill of Rights

Mahatma Gahndi is assassinated

Jewish State comes into existence

Harry S. Truman is elected as U. S. President

World Jewish Congress meets in Montreux

World Council of Churches organized

U.S. Foreign Assistance Bill grants $5.43 billion to Europe

Blockade of Berlin officially lifted

Cortisone discovered by Philip Hench

U.S.S.R. tests its first atomic bomb

Eleving U.S. Communists are found cuilty of conspiracy to overthrow government

Britain recognizes Communist China

Senator Joseph McCarthy advises President Truman that the U.S. State Department is full of Communists and Communist sympathizers

Britain recognizes Isreal

World population is approx. 2.3 billion

General MacArthur relieved of Far East command

British diplomats Burgess and Maclean, spies for the Russians, escape to the U.S.S.R.

22nd Amendment to the U.S. Constitution states that the longest any president can serve is two terms (8 years)

Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are sentenced to death for spying against the U.S.

Electric power produced from atmoic energy in U.S.

King George VI of England dies
-succeeded by daughter Queen Elizabeth II

Churchill announces that Britain has produced an atomic bomb

U.S. President Truman announces Hydrogen bomb (H-Bomb) tests in the Pacific

Dwight D. Eisenhower is elected as Presidence of the U.S.

U.S.S.R. Communist Party Congress meets in Moscow

Isreal and Germany reach agreement for restitution for damages done to the Jews by the Nazis

Stalin dies
-succeeded by G. M. Malenkov

Khrushchev named First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party

Queen Elizabeth II crowned

U.S.S>R. explodes hydrogen bomb

Alfred C. Kinsey publishes the "Kinsey Report"

Lung cancer is reported to be attributable to cigarette smoking

U.S.-Japanese defense agreement

U.S. Supreme Court rules that segretation by color in public schools is a violation of the 14th Amendment to the Constitution

Senator Joseph R. McCarthy continues his hunt for Communist infiltrators into the U.S. Army, culminating in a nationally televised hearing. He was formally censured and condemned by a Senate resolution which followed

U.S.S.R. degrees end of war with Germany

Albert Einstein dies

Churchill resigns and is succeeded by Anthony Eden

U.S. and U.S.S.R. announce that they will launch earth satellites in the International Geophysical Year 1957-58

Jordan and Israel accept UN truce proposals

Pakistan becomes Islamic Republic

Nasser elected President of Egypt

"Rock and Roll" Dance is en vogue

Grace Kelly marries Prince Rainier of Monaco and becomes Princess Grace

Dwight D. Eisenhawer re-elected as U.S. President

Teamsters Union is expelled from ALF-CIO because Jimmy Hoffa refuses to expel criminals and union refuses to expel Hoffa

U.S.S.R. launches Sputnik I and II, first earth satellites

Khrushchev succeeds Bulganin as Chairman of Council of U.S.S.R. Ministries

Fidel Castro begins "total war" against the Batista government in Cuba

Alaska becomes 49th state in the U.S.

Tension mounts as desegregation is attempted in Southern U.S. schools. Governor of Arkansas defies Supreme Court by closing schools in Little Rock, reopening them as Private, segregated schools

U.S.S.R. Sputnik III Launched

U.S. Establishes National Aeronautics and Space Administration to administer scientific ezploration of space

Fidel Castro becomes Premier of Cuba

Hawaii becomes 50th U.S. State

Pope John XXIII calls the first Ecumenical Council since 1870

Anti-Semitism flares in Cologne, Germany

John F. Kennedy elected U.S. President

Neo-Nazi groups banned in Germany

Emily Post dies

U.S. ends diplomatic relations with Cuba

Peace Corps established in U.S.

Bay of Pigs

Moscow synagogues closed

"Freedom Riders" beaten in Anniston and Birmingham, U.S.

Cuban Missile Crisis

Robert Bolt's "A Man for All Seasons" premiers in New York

Winston Churchill becomes honorary U.S. citizen

Nuclear testing banned by U.S., U.S.S.R., and Britain

200,000 "Freedom Marchers" demonstrate in Washington

Pope John XXIII dies
-succeeded by Pope Paul VI

President John F. Kennedy assassinated by Lee Harvy Oswald in Dallas Texas

Lyndon B. Johnson sworn in as president

America watches on TV while Lee Harvey Oswald is shot and killed by Jack Ruby

Winston Churchill makes his last appearance in the House of Commons before his 90th birthday

Race riots erupt in Harlem, New York and in many other cities as a reaction against civil rights law enforcement

President of Teamsters Union, Jimmy Hoffa, found guilty of jury tampering and is sentenced to 8 years in prison and payment of a $10,000 fine

Jimmy Hoffa convicted of fraud and conspiracy and is sentenced to five years in prison and another $10,000 fine

Pope Paul VI makes pilgrimage to the Holy Land

Lyndon B. Johnson elected President of the United States

Winston Spencer Churchill dies

Singapore gains independence

Malcolm X, Black Muslim leader is shot in New York

President Johnson signs Medicare bill into law

Major race riots in Los Angeles results in 35 deaths, 4,000 arrests, and $40 million in property damage

Israeli and Jordanian forces fight battle in Hebron area

Pope Paul Vi issues encyclical on Vietnamese war

Miniskirts come into fashion in U.S.

Israeli forces use tanks against Syria in worsening border conflict

Six day war between Isael and Arab Nations

Jerusalem proclaimed to be a united city under Israeli rule

British model, Twiggy, takes U.S. fashion scene by storm

Martin Luther King leads anti-Vietnam war march in New York

Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. is assassinated in a Memphis motel

Scotland Yard arrests James Earl Ray in London for murder of Martin Luther King. Ray is extradited to U.S. to stand trial

Pierre Elliott Trudeau sworn in as Canadian Prime Minister

78 million TV sets in U.S.

Senator Robert F. Kennedy assassinated in Los Angeles, following his victory speech upon winning California Democratic Primary

Jordanian, Sirhan Sirhan, is arrested and convicted of the crime

Violent fighting in Northern Ireland between Protestants and Roman Catholics

Yasir Arafat elected Chairman of Executive Committee of Palestine Liberation Organization

Ryukyu Islands returned to Japan

Queen Elizabeth II invests Prince Charles as Prince of Wales

First U.S. troops withdrawn from Vietnam

Pregnant actress Sharon Tate murdered by Charles Manson

Israel and the U.A.R. agree to a 99-day truce along the Suez Canal

U.S. strength in Vietnam is reduced to below 400,000 men

Assassination attempt on Pope Paul VI in the Philippines

TV sets in use throughout the world estimated at 231 million

U.S. planes bomb Vietcong supply routes in Cambodia

U.S. conducts large-scale air raids against N. Vietnam

Cigarette advertisements are banned from U.S. television

Roman Catholic Church and Church of England end a 400-year-old dispute by agreeing on a definition of the "essential meaning of the Eucharist"

U.S. and U.S.S.R. sign treaty banning testing of nuclear weapons on ocean floor

U.S. returns Okinawa to Japan

President Nixon visits China and Russia

President Richard M. Nixon reelected U. S. President

The Star of Sierra Leon is unearthed--largest diamond ever discovered

A U.S. Supreme Court ruling prohibits capital punishment, pending ruling from the states


U.S. Supreme Court rules that indicidual states may not prohibit abortions during the first six months of pregnancy

Pablo Picasso dies

Energy Crisis in U.S. a%nd Europe

Rebecca Popplewell graduates from high school

Worldwide inflation drives up cost of fuel, food, and materials

Year long Daylight Saving Times is adopted in U.S. to save fuel, but is later repealed

Watergate Impeachment

Britain's inflation rate jumps 25

Unemployment rate in the U.S. reaches 9.2%

U.S. and U.S.S.R. sign a treaty limiting the size of underground nuclear explosions set off for peaceful purposes, allows for on-site inspection

New Panama Canal treaties signed

Queen Elizabeth II of England celebrates Silver Jubilee

Pope John VI dies
-succeeded by Pope John Paul I

Pope John Paul I dies
--succeeded by Pope John Paul II (first Pole ever elected Pope, first non-Italian Pope elected in 456 years)


Camp David Peace treaties

Margaret Thatcher becomes Conservative Prime Minister of Britain

Pope John Paul II become first Pope to visit a Communist country when he returns to his native Poland

Mother Teresa is awarded Nobel Peace Prize

American Ku Klux Klan stages 50-mile “white-rights” march

President Carter breaks off diplomatic relations with Iran and announces trade ban

United Jerusalem is proclaimed capital of Israel instead of Tel Aviv

Ronald Reagan is elected U.S. President

22nd Olympic Games held in Moscow, 50 nations, including U.S., boycott

U.S. Supreme Court allows patent of a microbe created by G.E. Supporting Events

Ragtime is born

Claude Debussy brings impressionism to music in Pelleas and Melisande at Opera Comique in Paris

Major change in classical music by Arnold Shoenberg's "Book of Hanging Gardens"
-harmony and tonality of classical music replaced by dissonance

Jazz establishes Chicago as her capital after moving from southern roots

Duke Ellington's "It Don't mean a Thing, If It Ain't Got That Swing" presages the swing era of the 30s and 40s

Dizzy Gillespie founds the "bop" orchestra

Charlie Parker experiments with "bebop"

Bill Monroe invents bluegrass music

dj Alan Freed terms rock 'n' roll as R&B in order to broaden the audience of white listeners

Johnny Cash established as country music artist

John Coltrane forms quartet and is the voice of Jazz's New Wave movement

Patsy Cline crosses from country to pop with the releases of "I Fall to Pieces" and "Crazy"

The Beatles take Britain's obsession

The Rolling Stones rage against The Beatles' style with blues

Jamaican film "The Harder They Come" launches reggae's popularity in the U.S.

Patti Smith releases first punk rock single "Hey Joe"

Punk emerges out of Britain with bands such as "Sex Pistols," "Clash" in order to express nihilistic and anarchistic views against a lack of opportunity in Britain and boredom

Philip Glass competes "Einstein on the Beach" - his first widely known example of minimalist composition

The Sugar Hill Gang brings rap off the New York Streets to the popular music scene

Nirvana releases the hit "Smells Like Teen Spirit" which brings the grunge movement (distorted guitars, dispirited vocals, and flannel shirts) 1908
Dissonance replaces harmony and tonality of classical music with the release of Schoenberg's "Book of Hanging Gardens"

Arnold Schoenberg introduces concept of serialism

Schoenberg composed his first twelve-tone piece - Piano Suite, Op. 25

Philip Glass completes "Einstein on the Beach" - his first widely known example of minimalist composition 1933
Laurens Hammond introduces Hammond organ

Electric guitars debut

Stockhausen's "Karlheinz Stockhausen's Elektronische Studie 1" is the first composition to use sine wave sounds

MTV runs around the clock music videos, debuting with "Video Killed the Radio Star" Genres of Composition


-Alexander Scriabin
-Claude Debussy
-Gustav Mahler
-Richard Strauss


-Ralph Vaughan-Williams
-Aaron Copland
-Carlos Chavez
-Heitor Villa-Lobos
Microtonal music
-Julian Carrillo
-Mildred Couper
-Alois Haba
-Charles Ives
-Erwin SChulhoff
-Ivan Wyschnegradsky
-Easley Blackwwod, Jr.
-Wendy Carlos
-Ezra Sims
-Karlheinz Stockhausen
-Iannis Xenakis
-Igor Stravinsky
-Paul Hindemith
-Arnold Schoenberg

Experimental Music

-John Cage
-Terry Riley
-Steve Reich
-Philip Glass
-John Adams
-Henryk Gorecki
Contemporary classical music
-Oliver Knussen
-Thomas Ades
-Michael Daugherty

Electronic Music

-Edgard Varese
-Karlheinz Stockhausen
-Milton Babbitt
-Pierre Boulez
-Iannis Xenakis
Folk Music
-Johann Gottfried Herder
-Aaron Copland
Popular Music
-The Sex Pistols
-Frank Zappa
-Billie Holiday
-Scott Joplin
-George Gershwin
-Andrew Lloyd Webber


-Bessie Smith
-Wade Mainer
-Blue Grass Boys
-Stanley Brothers
-J.D. Crowe
-Norman Blake
-Tony Rice
-Dolly Parton
-Ricky Skaggs

Country music

-Vernon Dalhart
-Don Richardson
-Jimmie Rodgers
-Gene Autry
-Jerry Lee Lewis
-Ike Turner
-Elvis Presley
-Johnny Cash
-Chet Atkins
-Patsy Cline
-Ray Charles
-Bob Dylan
-Willie Nelson
-Kenny Rogers


- Jerry Butler
-Donna Summer
-The Bee Gees
-KC and the Sunshine Band
-The Jacksons

Hip Hop

- Melle Mel
-Chuck D
-Beastie Boys
-Big Daddy Kane


-King Oliver
-Bessie Smith
-Louis Armstrong
-Duke Ellington
-Benny Goodman
-Glenn Miller
- Dizzy Gillespie
-Miles Davis
-George Gershwin

New Age Music

- Steven Halpern
-Dean Evenson
-Paul Horn


-Dmitri Shostakovich
-Igor Stravinsky
-Lawrence Welk
-Tom Brusky
-Weird Al Yankovic

Rock and Roll

-Elvis Presley
-Fats Domino
-Jerry Lee Lewis
-Buddy Holly
Alternative rock
-The Sugarcubes
-New Order
Progressive rock
- Pink Floyd
-Gentle Giant
-Dexter Gordon
-Celia Cruz
Full transcript