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Cosmological Argument - Philosophy Revision
Transcript of Cosmological Argument - Philosophy Revision
Argument The word 'cosmos' comes from the Greek word beginning. St Thomas Aquinas developed Aristotles theory and used three of his arguments of the 'five ways' to provide evidence for the cosmological argument. It is an a posteriori argument. Way 1- First or Prime or Unmoved Mover Marble has the
potential to become a statue. But a sculptor is needed
to carry out the processs. Things that move or change need something to move them.
There is a chain of movers which cannot go on forever.
There must be an unmoved mover which is God. Way 2- Cause
and Effect The first domino was pushed which caused the rest to fall and the effect was a chain reaction. Every effect has a cause.
This leads to a chain of cause which cannot go on for infinitely.
There has to be a first cause.
The uncaused cause is God. Way 3- Contingency
and Necessity We all have
a beginning but
one day we
won't be here. Everything in the world is contingent (It has a beginning)
At sometime all contingent things didn't exist.
If everything was contingent at sometime in the past nothing existed.
So nothing could have started to exist.
There must be a necessary being which is God. Criticisms for
the 3 ways Why can't things go on for infinity? Kant- He says cause and effect work but only in our world. If there is a God - He exists outside our world and we cannot make any statements about what is outside our world. Russel- He says the universe is just a brute fact there is no explanation. Why could there not be more than one necessary being or first mover? Even if the argument worked it would not prove the existence of the God of Christianity but an impersonal mover or cause. David Hume- He argued we have no experience of the universe being made and so it is not possible to argue from causes within the universe to causes of the universe as a whole. It is one thing to talk about the causes that operate within the universe, but quite another to generalize it to the universe as a whole. Kalam Argument Al Kindi (The guy in the picture) and Al Ghazi (The guy who doesn't have a picture on Google) came up with the Islamic argument which supports what St Thomas Aquinas said. The word Kalam comes from the Arabic meaning to discuss or argue. Instead of arguing that the universe depends on God, The argument tries to show that God is the originated cause. According to Craig, the Kalam Cosmological Argument is constructed as follows:
Whatever begins to exist, has a cause of its existence.
The universe began to exist.
Therefore, the universe has a cause of its existence. William developed the argument and came up with 5 statements:
Everything that has a beginning of existence must have a cause.
People began to exist.
People must have a cause; the cause is their parents.
The universe began to exist therefore it must have had a cause.
This cause is God. Ed Miller- He developed the argument based on the passage in time. An infinite universe would have an infinite number of days. Strengths Leibniz came up with a 'Principle of sufficient reason'
We require explanation and reasons for things existing-
to establish why there is something rather than nothing.
Man has not been able to find reason for the existence of the universe within the universe it-self. So the greater cause must be outside it. JL Mackie (1917-1981)- Illustrated Aquinas' rejection of infinite regress with a train. Each caraige pulls the other on behind it, but it wouldn't get anywhere without the engine. God is like the engine. Richard Swinburne (1934)- An influential
proponent of natural theology. Focuses of the
wonder of being anything in existence at all. Nothing
is much more likely, logical state of affairs. Frederick Copleston ( 1907- 1994) Developed Aquinas
5 ways attempting to clarify and explain them further
(especially Contingency). Say's that the cosmological
argument defines such a being that must and cannot not exist.