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Japan: Past, Present, and Future

Feudal Japan, Meiji Restoration, WWII, and Modern Japan
by

Nick Martino

on 21 April 2014

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Transcript of Japan: Past, Present, and Future

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/3649201/I-Samurai.html
The Japanese Sword
Heian Period
Ashikaga Shogunate
Tokugawa Shogunate
Commodore Matthew Perry
daimyos replace Emperor's nobles for power in Kyoto
warlords or feudal land ownders
Samurai 'to serve'
'Bushi' is 'warrior'
Kamakura Period

794-1192
Caernorfon Castle, Wales

Justice
Loyalty
Defense
Courage
Faith
Humility
Nobility

Early Mounted Samurai Warriors

Fidelity
Politeness
Virility
Simplicity

Code of Bushido

Becomes suspicious of European territorial ambitions.
Orders all European missionaries expelled from Japan.
Tries to invade Korea, but fails.

Banishes the last Ashikaga shogun.
Unifies a large part of Japan.

Warwick Castle, England

Chaos and war as shoguns fought for power.
Laws are unclear.
Less efficient than the Kamakura.
Armies of samurai protected the country.
Called Muramachi because this near-Kyoto grew economically
Huge increase in cultural arts
Minamoto Yoritomo after defeated the Taira clan founded the Kamakura Shogunate.

Tale of Genji
The Pillow Book by Sei Shonagon (diary)

The Pillow Book by Sei Shonagon (diary)

Heian Court Dress

Characteristics:
Capital moves to Kyoto
Growth of large landed estates.
Arts & literature of China flourished.
Elaborate court life [highly refined] ETIQUETTE.
Personal diaries
The Pillow Book by Sei Shonagon [10c]
The Tale of Genji by Lady Murasaki Shikibu
Moving away from Chinese models in religion, the arts, and government.

Japan closed off to all trade [except to the Dutch and Chinese].
The Dutch were restricted to a small island in Nagasaki harbor.
Japanese Christians persecuted and Christianity is forbidden.
The government is centralized with all power in the hands of the shogun.
Domestic trade flourishes.
Towns, esp. castle towns, increase.
Merchant class becomes rich!
New art forms haiku poetry, kabuki theater.

Tokugawa Shogunate Period
1603- 1868
St. Francis Xavier [First Catholic Missionaries in Asia]

Catholic Jesuits in Japan

4,400 ships and 140,000 men, but kamikaze winds stopped them.

A Japanese variation of the Mahayana form of Buddhism, which came from India through China.
It reinforced the Bushido values of mental and self-discipline
Adopted Chinese culture and Confucianism.
Buddhist sects allowed to develop.
Created a new government structure:
17 Article Constitution in 604.

Prince Shotoku: 573-621

Began promoting the adoption of Chinese culture:

Confucianism.
Language (kanji characters).
Buddhist sects.
Chinese art & architecture.
Government structure.



“Great Kings” era

Appointed shogun by the Emperor.
Four-class system laid down with marriage restricted to members of the same class!

Warriors
Farmers
Artisans
Merchants

Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543-1616)

STURDY SHINGUARDS of cloth or leather were reinforced with strips of iron to give protection from the front

AN EXQUISITE BROCADE, richly worked with a design of peonies, was one of the extravagant materials used in an armor robe that may have been made for a 14th Century imperial prince

BILLOWING PANTALOONS,worn over the armor robe, fitted loosely in the legs to allow freedom of movement

A SHORT SLEEVED KIMONO, or “armor robe,” was tied snugly at the waist with a special knot (lower right)

A COTTON BREECH CLOUT that extended up over the chest was the basic undergarment of a samurai’s costume

Underpinnings: Basic Steps in Self Defense

It is honorable to die in this way.

Kaishaku – his “seconds”

Seppuku: Ritual Suicide

Medieval Warriors

vs.

Samurai Armor

Knight’s Armor

Medieval Warriors

vs.

Samurai Warrior

European knight

Code of Chivalry

Saved by 'Kamikaze" or divine winds
archipelago
agriculture
feudalism
Heian Era
battle of Sekigahara
battle of Osaka
Onin War
bushido
Edo period


Lots of Mountains -->
Sparse lands to share -->
Sparse lands to farm -->
Landowners need to protect and own their land -->
Geographical Conditions
Nara Period
710 - 794
Yamato Period 300-710
Established in Tokugawa Years
Fidelity
Politeness
Virility
Simplicity

Code of Bushido
Samurai v. Mongols
Hideyoshi 1536 - 1598
Christians Martyred 1597
Sengoku Era
Readings:
Edo Period
Keywords:
Based on your prior knowledge of feudal Japan, what can you deduce from the following maps?
How did geographical factors affect social and political life in early Japan?
Mountains
Plains
Modern Cities
Did we get to this conclusion?
Japan: Past, Present, and Future ...
Unit 1: Feudal Japan

Tokugawa Ieyasu
daimyo
Shinto
Genji Monogatari
sakoku
shogun
sakura
seppuku
Commodore Matthew Perry
http://www.history.com/topics/samurai-and-bushido
Jared Diamond, The Worst Mistake Humans Ever Made
Samurai, 1000 Years of War
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/ieyasu_tokugawa.shtml
http://www.colorado.edu/cas/tea/curriculum/imaging-japanese-history/tokugawa/essay.html
aka...
Imperial capital moves to Nara
Government modeled after T'ang Dynasty of China
Chinese language
Buddhism flourished
First long term capital
http://gallery.sjsu.edu/oldworld/asiangate/AgeOfsamurai/timeline.htm
First novel
Over 1000 pages
1180-85 A.D. Minamoto Yoritomo takes up arms against the Taira clan in The Gempei War. And establishes the Kamakura bakufu Heian era ends.
Samurai clans begin to battle ...
Gempai War
'bakufu' means 'tent government' and was essentially the name of the government run by the Shogun as opposed to the government run by the Emperor
Tale of Heiki
&
This video shows the emaki images from theHeiki Monogatari. It explains through passages from the tale the transition of power from the Taira clan to the Minamoto clan.
How does this relate to notions of death in other societies?
Still today with Power Rangers and Parades
Capitol shifted to Kamakura area, near Tokyo
Emperors reigned by Shoguns ruled
Rise of the Samurai class
Zen Buddhism increases its influence
Thwarting off of Mongol Invasions from Korea
Feudal System defined
Internal problems split the Minamoto clan into a Northern and Southern empire
gained lots of significance during this time
a sword was said to be a samurai's soul
1183-1333
Zen Buddhism
http://www.bowdoin.edu/mongol-scrolls/
Very cool website using the scrolls that were created by a warrior to document the battles.
weakened Kamakura clans strength
rebellion led by Ashikaga Takauji
Warring States Period
1333-1568
Onin War 1467-1477
Osaka Castle
Hiroshima Castle
Muramachi Period
1543-1600
Civil wars continue
Castles built on hills in different provinces
Portugese arrive bringing guns and God.
Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier starts proselytizing Christianity
Christianity and foreign trade flourish
Oda Nobunaga comes to power
Nobunaga starts the unification of Japan
Some daimyos convert forcing all that are loyal to them to convert as well.
Daimyos link with missionaries because missionaries bring merchants
M&Ms
Oda Nobunaga (1534-1582)

Painting
Noh Theater
Rock Gardens
Tea Ceremony
http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0312/feature5/zoomify/main.html
Great website that shows you an antique screen depicting the battle.
Siege of Osaka
Battle of Segikahara
http://www.nakasendoway.com/?page_id=496
Destroyed the remnants of a central government in japan and led to a century of war and chaos.
1605 A.D. Miyamoto Musashi, Japans most famous swordsman, begins hi musha-shugyo (Warrior Pilgrimage). Musashi fought and won more than 60 duels before the age of 30. He founded the Individual School of Two Skies and taught for many years. At the age of 60, Musashi wrote Gorin No Sho (The book of Five Rings), the most famous writing about the Japanese sword arts. He also wrote "The 35 Articles on the Art of Swordsmanship."
1605 A.D. Miyamoto Musashi, Japans most famous swordsman, begins hi musha-shugyo (Warrior Pilgrimage). Musashi fought and won more than 60 duels before the age of 30. He founded the Individual School of Two Skies and taught for many years. At the age of 60, Musashi wrote Gorin No Sho (The book of Five Rings), the most famous writing about the Japanese sword arts. He also wrote "The 35 Articles on the Art of Swordsmanship."
To what extent did ancient Japan shape the Japan we see today?
Podcast: https://soundcloud.com/nic-martino-1/tokugawa-ieyasu-podcast
because ...
Book of Five Rings
Aug 7, 1853
ARIGATO!

Japanese Sand Garden

Japanese Zen Garden

Bonzai : A Unique Method of Meditation

Calligraphy

Calligraphy

Origami : The Art of Japanese Paper Folding

A Tea House Interior

A Japanese Tea House

A Japanese Tea Master

Chanoyu : Tea Ceremony

Bunraku Puppets

Noh Theater :
8-man chorus

Origins in the Nara Period (710-794)

Hot Sand Bath at
Takegawara Onsen, Beppu

Shinto Subway Shrine

Memorials for the Unborn

Prayers, Thoughts, & Wishes
at a Shinto Shrine

Shinto Priest

Torii Gong

Torii Gate

Torii Gate in Winter

Tree kami surrounded by sacred boundaries

Amaterasu : Sun Goddess

By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY

Simplicity!

Shinto in Modern Furniture

Miniature Rock/Sand Garden

Japanese Garden for Meditation

Jizo Stones

Traditional Shinto Wedding Today

Shinto Temple – “worship hall”

A Tunnel of Torii Gates
Inari Mt., Kyoto

Torii Gate, Miyajima Island

Tallest  Heaven
Middle  Man
Smallest  Earth

Ikebana : The Art of Japanese Flower Arranging

Spring departs. Birds cry Fishes' eyes are filled with tears.

Matsuo Basho, Master of Haiku

Haiku : 17-syllable poem

An interior of a Kabuki theater.

Kabuki Theater

The Play Aoi no Ue

Noh Theater

Grandma & her grandson

Japanese Baths

Wedded Rocks at Futami no Ura

Union of Izanami & Izanagi

Origami : Modern Adaptations

Bunraku Puppets

Green Tea

Tea Ceremony Equipment

 Old Man Warrior Demon God

Woman Heavenly-being Demonness

Traditional
Weeping
Gesture

Noh Theater

Great Creator

Minimize sin & guilt

The World of the kami

Hyper- Nationalism

Ancestor Worship

Polytheism

Shinto

Japan Is a Player in China

Everything Western Was Fashionable!

Enlightened Half-Enlightened Un-Enlightened

Newspaper Cartoon, 1870s?

MEIJI  “Enlightened Rule”

The Emperor Is “Restored” to Power

Highly idealistic samurai who felt that the arrival of Westerners was an attack on the traditional values of Japan.
They believed that:
Japan was sacred ground.
The emperor, now a figurehead in Kyoto, was a God.
Were furious at the Shogun for signing treaties with the West without the Emperor’s consent.
Their slogan  Revere the Emperor, Expel the Barbarians!

The Shi-shi (“Men of High Purpose”)

In 1862, just before the start of the Meiji period, Tokugawa sent officials and scholars to China to study the situation there. A Japanese recorded in his diary from Shanghai…
The Chinese have become servants to the foreigners. Sovereignty may belong to China but in fact it's no more than a colony of Great Britain and France.

Japan Learns a Lesson!

1853 – Commodore Matthew Perry “Opens Up” Japan to Western Trade!

Ms. Susan M. Pojer & Mrs. Lisbeth Rath Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY

But, Japanese Power Would Grow . . .

The U. S. “Great White Fleet”

The Battle of Tsushima: The results startled the world!

The Russo-Japanese War: 1904-1905

The Treaty of Shimonoseki ended the war.

Soldiers on the Battlefield During the Sino-Japanese War

New players on the block?

Expansionism & the Rise of Military Power

Civilization and Enlightenment!

The Japanese Became Obsessed with Western Styles

Europe began to “loom large” in the thinking of many Japanese.
New slogan: Japanese Spirit; Western Technology!

European Goods

A powerful group of samurai overthrow the Shogun.
Sakamoto Ryoma, the hero.
He helped Japan emerge from feudalism into a unified modern state.

The Meiji Revolt - 1868

After the Opium War of 1839-1842, Japan was convinced that it had to Open Up to the West.

China’s “Unequal Treaties”

The Treaty of Kanagawa - 1854

Perry’s “Black Ships”

Commodore Matthew Perry

Japan Changes Direction During the Meiji Era: 1868 - 1912

The Treaty of Portsmouth, NH ended the Russo-Japanese War.

President Teddy Roosevelt Mediates the Peace

The Meiji Emperor was in Hiroshima during the Sino-Japanese War

Sino-Japanese War: 1894-1895

Emperor Meiji Empress Haruko (1868- 1912)

The Rulers Set the Tone with Western Dress

Japanese soldiers with their wives.

Everything Western Was Fashionable!

Popular board game.
Start by leaving Japan & studying in various Western capitals.
End by returning to Japan and becoming a prominent government official.

Modernization by “Selective Borrowing”

The last Shogun.
Tokugawa Yoshinobu.

The Shogunate Is Overthrown!

Coaling stations.
More trading partners.
A haven for ship-wrecked sailors.

What Did the U. S. Want??

Offshore gas field in the East China Sea reveals recently strained relations between China & Japan.
Tension over disputed gas field on the rise, exacerbating mutual mistrust dating back to the Sino-Japanese War.

EEZ-Exclusive Economic Zone.

Today—Tensions Between China & Japan

The First “Miss Japan” (1908)

1900 Styles

Changing Women’s Fashions

1889 Constitution of Japan

House of Peers

House of Representatives

The Diet (Legislative Body)

The Emperor of Japan

Satsuma & Choshu Families

A Constitutional Government Copied from the Germans

Modern Banking System

Written Constitution (Germans)

Emperor Worship Intensified

Modernize the Army (Prussian)

Westernize the School System (Fr. & Ger.)

Build a Modern Navy (British)

Human Rights & Religious Freedom

Land Redistribution

Abolition of the feudal system

Meiji Reforms

Unit 2: Meiji Era
& Cultural Crafts

What was the Meiji Restoration all about?
How did it affect Japanese culture and identity?
How were traditional crafts a way of clinging and remember to the past?
Keywords:
Meiji Restoration
Annexation
Emperor
Imperialism
zaibatsu
Matthew Perry
Port Arthur Attack 1905
Kokoro
Diet
Sino-Japanese War 1894-1895
Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905
Readings:
Primary Source: Matthew Perry "When we landed in Japan" http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1854Perry-japan1.asp
http://aboutjapan.japansociety.org/content.cfm/the_meiji_restoration_era_1868-1889 (G10)
http://www.japan-guide.com/e/e2130.html (G9)
http://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/21f/21f.027/throwing_off_asia_01/toa_essay01.html (class activity)
Shintoism http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b014qnld (podcast)
NOT
http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/timelines/japan_modern_timeline.htm
Need timeline help?
https://tobiasmastgrave.wordpress.com/tag/timelines/
Monday, March 3
Friday, February 28
Last class we made some predictions about what was going to happen with this rapid Westernization, let's see what happens...
Discuss ... and then
1. Your finished essays should be able to be located under the tags "japan" "cultural craft" Tag Dashboard on Spot, take 5 minutes to make sure that they are tagged properly! (note: there is a space between the two words Cultural and Craft)
The Transition: 1912-1937
http://www.dinosaurisle.com/timeline.aspx
1924
1937
1933
1914
World War I
-Japan aligns with Britain and France and takes German China (Qingdao)
-1919: U.S., Britain and Australia veto "racial equality" clause in the League of Nations

Economic Crisis
Rapid Expansion
in China
-Japan taking Advantage of China's inner struggles between Communists and Nationalists
-Japan withdraws from League of Nations


1912
Meiji
Taisho
New Emperor & End of Restoration
Power
Oligarchs
Parliament
Power
Parliament
Military
1930's
World War II breaking loose
http://www.fotw.net/flags/jp.html
-1923: Great Kanto Earthquake --> Tokyo destroyed + 140,000 casualities
-1924: U.S. passes 'Exclusion Act' --> prohibited further Japan. Immigration
-1929: Black Tuesday --> Beginning of Worldwide Economic Crisis
Poor Villagers
Army
1. Watch Part 4: Fill out your See-Think-Wonder notes
Imperialism
'like the westerners'
-1937: 2nd Sino-Japanese War with China
-1940: French Indonesia after cooperation with Vichy France
-1940: Oil boycott by Britain and U.S.
-1941: Pearl Harbor
-June 1942: Turning point at 'Midway'
-August 1945: Nuclear Bombings on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
-14. August 1945: Japan's Surrender
2. Create a timeline ... anyway you want using some, not all of the following dates:

3. Choose one of these to investigate deeper and write an in-depth paragraph explaining it in your own words
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4
This unit you will be working on your Interdisciplinary Project with Art and Enlish class. You will be creating 3-dimensional piece of contemporary art inspired by our recent trip to Kyoto, in English you will be creating a how-to guide for others around the world to duplicate your project, and for Global Studies you will write a 2-3 page essay on the cultural significance of your craft.
What do you See-Think-Wonder?
What do you See-Think-Wonder?
Unit 3: Japanese Imperialism and War
G10
2. Listen to this podcast of an allegorical story that I wrote, and create a quick blog explaining the connections to Meiji Japan with reference to one or two specific historical events. Tag this blog "AdolescentJapan"
G10 you have a double block this morning, do this first.
WAIT
G9 - You've seen that part, do this ...
http://cm.dce.harvard.edu/1999/01/83104/L07/seg1/index_FlashSingleHighBandwidth.html
Let's learn with
a story that alludes to something else
https://spot.thinkglobalschool.com/podcasts/view/143811/jack-and-the-team-sport
Japanese Imperialism http://www.indiana.edu/~hisdcl/G369_2002/japanese_imperialism.htm

Environment for Imperialism http://www.indiana.edu/~hisdcl/G369_2002/japanese_imperialism1.htm


Portsmouth Peace Treaty - http://www.portsmouthpeacetreaty.org/process/

Multi-Track Diplomacy http://www.portsmouthpeacetreaty.org/multitrackdiplomacy.cfm


Japanese Imperialism
Sino - Japanese War in the 1880s
WHY?
C
I
M
N
olonialism
mperialism
uscle
ationalism
Everybody's doing it ...
HUGE ...
Great moment in World History
What is Multi-Track Diplomacy?
Activity: How can we share this with the world needs to see this …
Japan begins its brutal relations with Korea
Unit 4: Graphic Novels for Change
+
+
=
Student created Graphic Novel showcasing a violation of Human Rights around the world that evokes emotion and provides readers with a call to action.
Unit 5: Tojo to Mojo: Discussions on Modern Japan
#globalchats
Full transcript