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Mixed Methods (Convergent Parallel)

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Robbie Hollohan

on 13 June 2014

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Transcript of Mixed Methods (Convergent Parallel)

Intro to Mixed Methods Research
component and Quantitative
component are often referred to as strands
Steps to Conducting a Convergent Parallel Design
Use strategies to merge results
-Merge the two sets of results by identifying content areas represented in both data sets to compare/contrast results
-Identify differences within 1 set of results based on dimensions within the other set
-Develop procedures to transform one type of result into the other type of data

Use strategies to interpret results
-Summarize and interpret the separate results
-Discuss to what extent and in what ways results from the types of data converge, diverge, relate to each other, and/or produce a better understanding

Convergent parallel design
Mixed Methods: Focus on Convergent Parallel Design
By: Robbie Hollohan
Catherine Barry

STEP ONE (done concurrently)
-Design the Quantitative Strand- state quantitative research questions and determine the appropriate quantitative approach (es)
-Design the Qualitative Strand- state qualitative research questions and determine the appropriate qualitative approach(es)

STEP TWO (done concurrently)
-Analyze the quantitative strand and the qualitative strand

Needs both quantitative and qualitative expertise
Consequences of having different samples and different sample size when merging two data sets.
How to merge two types of data.
How to deal with the situation in which quantitative and qualitative results contradict each other.
Parallel-databases variants: two sets of data merge at the final step
Data-transformation variant
Data-validation variant: such as open-ended questions on a questionnaire
Philosophical debates about mixed methods
What is mixed methods research?
Challenges Cont....
Relatively new form; "mixing" or combining forms of data

Combining the strengths of open-ended (qualitative) and closed-ended (quantitative) to develop a stronger understanding of the research question

Persuasive and rigorous procedures for the qualitative and quantitative methods

An approach to research with a philosophical foundation

The methods are mixed by 
ordering them sequentially 
merging them 
embedding one strand within the other

Procedures are incorporated into a distinct mixed methods design that also includes timing of the data collection (concurrent or sequential) as well as the emphasis (equal or unequal)

Combines the data within the context of a single study or  research program
Also known as


Quantitative and qualitative methods


Mixed methodology

Convergent Parallel Design Variants
The need for extensive data collection.
Time-intensive nature of analyzing both text and numeric data.
Whether qualitative participants should be the same individuals as in the quantitative sample?
Why choose mixed methods?
Draws both on qualitative and quantitative research strengths
Qualitative and quantitative approaches provide different perspectives or "pictures"
Provides more data (more evidence is better)
Minimizes the limitations of both approaches on their own
Sophisticated approach; latest methodolgy; may be preferred approach in particular field
Ideal for those with access to both types of data
It's intuitive

Mixed Methods may give a more thorough understanding of problems:

Compare different perspectives drawn from quantitative and qualitative data

Explain quantitative results with a qualitative follow-up data collection & analysis (sequential)

• Understand experimental results by incorporating the perspectives of individuals

• Develop a more rounded understanding of changes needed for a marginalized group by merging data

• Gain a better understanding of evaluation of an intervention implementation through collecting both quantitative and qualitative data over time

Creswell, 2012
Types of Mixed Methods Design
Convergent Parallel Mixed Methods Design

Explanatory Sequential Mixed Methods

Exploratory Sequential Mixed Methods

Advanced Mixed Methods Designs:
Embedded Mixed Methods
Transformative Mixed Methods

Choosing a Mixed Methods Approach
Creswell, J. (2012). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.

Jick, T. D. (1979). Mixing qualitative and quantitative methods: Triangulation in action. Administrative science quarterly, 602-611.

Tashakkori, Abbas, and Charles Teddlie. Mixed methodology: Combining qualitative and quantitative approaches. Vol. 46. Sage, 1998.

Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage.

Seek to compare different perspectives drawn from quantitative and qualitative data

Seek to merge the two databases to show how the data converge or diverge

Convergent Parallel Mixed Methods Design
is recommended.

Notation Used in Mixed Methods Research
Side with one form of data or the other
Gather more data and make further comparisons
Reexamine each data base for rigor
Reevaluate whether parallel questions asked
State limitation
When Results Diverge,
Conflict, or are Inconsistent
Convergent Parallel Fundamentals
Both quantitative and qualitative data are collected and analyzed separately.

Results of both sets of data are compared to see if the findings confirm or deny each other.

Assumption is that the data will provide different types of information

Campbell and Fiske (1959)

Possible Resources
Qualitative Data: can assume any form (interviews, observations, documents, records).

Quantitative Data: instrument data, observational checklists, or numeric records (such as census data).

Key idea: collect both forms of data using the SAME or PARALLEL variables, constructs, or concepts.

Creswell, J. (2012). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.

Johnson, R., & Onwuegbuzie, A. (2004). Mixed Methods Research: A Research Paradigm Whose Time Has Come. Educational Researcher, 33(7), 14-26.

Salehi, K. G. (2010). Using mixed methods in research studies: An opportunity with its challenges. International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches, 4, 186-191.

Journal of Mixed Methods Research
Quantitative Issues
Qualitative Issues
For both methods it is important for the researcher to ensure they do not stereotype the participants and place equal importance on both data types.
Ethical Issues
• Creates a more holistic view of the research problem and question(s)

• Provides a very deep and rich understanding of the topic

• The researcher can develop instruments from preliminary qualitative research to use for quantitative research

• Provides both numbers and stories, so many different audiences can be engaged
Developing Mixed Methods Research with Dr. John W. Creswell
In 1959,
Campbell and Fiske
introduced the multi-trait, multi-method approach, stimulating interest in employing multiple methods in a single study (p.81).
Sam D. Sieber
integrated the research techniques within one study.
Todd D. Jick
applied and popularized the expanded vision of triangulation presented in Denzin 1970.
Early 1990s it was found that there is some overlap in ‘worldviews’ and mixed methods eventually became accepted as a distinct design, after much heated debate in the "paradigm wars."

Mixed Methods Research
Thanks for watching !!
John W. Creswell
Creswell (2014)
Incompatibility thesis
- fundamental differences between QUAN and QUAL approaches are so great that methods cannot be mixed
- what is the best way to answer a research question?
Steps to Conducting a Convergent Parallel Design
Alternate Assessment Use With Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: An Exploratory Mixed-Methods Analysis of Portfolio, Checklists, and Out-of-Level Test Formats
Stephanie W. Cawthon
Keith A. Wurtz

Purpose: Present findings on alternate assessments for students who are deaf or hard of hearing (SDHH).
Investigated three alternate assessment formats: portfolio, checklists, and out-of-level testing
Included descriptive data of alternate assessment use across all three formats
looks at predictors: ex. School Enviroment
Stephanie W. Cawthon
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