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Copy of Logical Fallacies

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by

L. Raley

on 30 November 2010

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Transcript of Copy of Logical Fallacies

Logical Fallacies An error in reasoning - they lead to inaccurate or wrong conclusions False or weak premises Irrelevance Ambiguity Ad Hominem - attacking the character of your opponent instead of his/her argument Bandwagon - Agree with me
because everyone else does! Begging the question -
Using circular reasoning Either/or - Presenting limited choices when there are other options Straw Man - Arguing against a position
that does not exist Weak Analogy - Making an improper
comparison between two things Post Hoc reasoning - arguing for
causation when there is none Hasty Generalization - Using
a small part to judge a whole Slippery Slope - Suggesting one
event will lead to many others Red Herring - Something that
distracts from the current issue False Authority - Defending a claim
with an untrustworthy source Tu Quoque - Turning an
accusition back on the accuser Correlation implies causation Two events that occur together are prematurely
claimed to have a cause-and-effect relationship. Paranormal phenomena exist because
I have had experiences that can only
be described as paranormal. The conclusion of this argument is that paranormal phenomena exist. The premise assumes that the arguer has had paranormal experiences, and therefore assumes that paranormal experiences exist. The arguer should not be granted the assumption that his experiences were paranormal, but should made to provide support for this claim. Child: "Can we get a dog?"
Parent: "No."
Child: "It would protect us."
Parent: "Still, no."
Child: "Why do you want to leave us and our house unprotected?"
The child in the above scenario may be making a straw man argument if the parent's reason for not getting a dog has nothing to do with protection but with other factors. Moreover, not getting a dog is not necessarily proof that the parent doesn't want to protect the family and home as there are other means of protection. Why is a raven like
a writing desk? A occurred, then B occurred.
Therefore, A caused B.

When B is undesirable, this pattern
is often extended in reverse:
Avoiding A will prevent B. Smith, who is from England, decides to attend graduate
school at Ohio State University. He has never been to the
US before. The day after he arrives, he is walking back
from an orientation session and sees two white (albino)
squirrels chasing each other around a tree. In his next letter
home, he tells his family that American squirrels are white. Bill: "You know, those feminists all hate men."
Joe: "Really?"
Bill: "Yeah. I was in my philosophy class the other day and that Rachel chick gave a presentation."
Joe: "Which Rachel?"
Bill: "You know her. She's the one that runs that feminist group over at the Women's Center. She said that men are all sexist pigs. I asked her why she believed this and she said that her last few boyfriends were real sexist pigs. "
Joe: "That doesn't sound like a good reason to believe that all of us are pigs."
Bill: "That was what I said."
Joe: "What did she say?"
Bill: "She said that she had seen enough of men to know we are all pigs. She obviously hates all men."
Joe: "So you think all feminists are like her?"
Bill: "Sure. They all hate men." Claim: “You must not love me.”
Reason: “You haven’t bought me that bicycle.”
Warrant: “Buying bicycles for children is essential to loving them.” The name of this fallacy comes from the sport of fox hunting in which a dried, smoked herring, which is red in color, is dragged across the trail of the fox to throw the hounds off the scent. Thus, a "red herring" argument is one which distracts the audience from the issue in question through the introduction of some irrelevancy. This frequently occurs during debates when there is an at least implicit topic, yet it is easy to lose track of it. It should be illegal to make clothing out of animals.
But, you are wearing a leather jacket.
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