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Transcript of Primate Taxonomy
Gradistic classification is based on overall similarity
Ancestral traits - traits
present in common ancestor
Cladistic is based on descendants of a common ancestor
Derived traits - traits present in common ancestor
Must have these ancestral characteristics.
A reflective surface behind the eye to allow for more opportunity to see light.
A wet nose - allows strepsirhines to smell better.
Many of these traits are to help strepsirhines survive and find food at night.
Helps their olfactory senses (smelling sense)
All primates have post orbital bar, but strepsirhines ONLY have the bar, no more.
Used to clean fur
This is a premolar, not a canine.
Claw-like nail fingers that helps them to groom each other.
(Primates have nails, not claws)
Grooming claw, rest of the nails are flat.
The first group of strepsirhines we will discuss are the lemurs.
Lemurs are endemic to the island of Madagascar, this means they do not occur naturally anywhere else on Earth.
While most strepsirhines are nocturnal and solitary, lemurs have been isolated for so long, they have filled a variety of niches, including being diurnal and highly social.
Lemurs of Madagascar
Crepuscular - most active during twilight hours (dawn and dusk).
Female dominant (like most lemurs) - females get first go on all resources.
Stink fight - mark their tail and wave it. Avoids conflict.
Vertical clingers and leapers -
hold onto tree trunks and push off to reach the next one.
so specialized, can't move any other way
3 different species of bamboo lemur
they all eat bamboo, but different parts
Avoids competition and co-exist.
golden bamboo lemur evolved t
o break down cyanide
present in bamboo shoots.
This is a solitary, nocturnal lemur.
The world's smallest primate
Have elongated fingers
middle finger is skeletal.
Last knuckle is a ball and socket joint
They have large ears and continuously growing incisors like rodents.
Many Malagasy people believe they are evil.
Mainly found in India and Southeast Asia, some are in Africa
Nocturnal and solitary.
Infant parking to take care of their young.
Adaptation - developed toxic saliva that they lick all over their body.
Found in Sub-Saharan Africa and Zanzibar.
Male dominant society
Also nocturnal and do infant parking
Tarsiers, somewhere in between
Grouped as haplorhines with the monkeys and apes.
Tarsiers only have 2 ancestral traits
incomplete post-orbital closure (it's more than a bar, but not complete closure)
All the rest of their traits are derived
Found in southeast Asia.
They are nocturnal, but don't have a tapetum lucidum
Do not have a rhinarium
Have a short snout
No tooth comb
Incomplete post-orbital closure
They are insectivorous
Not how you pronounce the name, but a good video none the less.
More derived traits than strepsirhines.
Haplorhine traits emphasize diurnal living.
No Tapetum Lucidum
There is enough light that they do not need the reflective surface.
No Rhinarium & Short Snout
Rely more on visual cues and not olfactory.
Increase in visual cues = changes to visual traits.
Bone completely surrounding the back of the eye.
No Tooth Comb
Haplorhine diets become more diverse
require specialized dentition
No Grooming Claw
Nails on all digits
No grooming claw
New World Primates
only in Central and South America.
broad, lateral nostrils
Dental formula is 22.214.171.124
Tamarins & Marmosets
These are some of the smallest monkeys.
Live in the tops of trees, branches are thin
Adaptation: sharp nails
Unusually, they tend to have twins
Pygmy marmoset is t
he smallest monkey species
Have the largest brain to body size ratio of any non-human primate (NHP)
Use tools (uncommon in monkeys)
Can even understand value
Seasonally sexually dimorphic
During the non-mating season, males live in bachelor troops
Cannot approach females until reproductive season, when their testicles increase in size, they get more testosterone, and they get larger
Only nocturnal monkey
Do not have a tapetum lucidum
Probably used to be diurnal and then became nocturnal
Subspecies of this monkey is cathemeral.
Cathemeral - comes out during random times of day and night
Howler Monkey, Spider Monkey, Wolly Monkey, Muriqui
All have true prehensile tails
Some are frugivores, but the howler monkey is a folivore, eating leaves more than anything else
All Old World primates
Must occur in Africa and Asia
Narrow, downward facing nostrils
The upper canines create a sheering surface with the canines below them.
Cercopithecoids have ischial callosities (butt pads).
There are 2 groups of Cercopithecoids:
Adaptation: sacculated stomach
Most care for young through alloparenting
Allows younger individuals practice parenting
Offspring are usually brightly colored to help make unattended offspring more easily identifiable
Most of these monkeys are omnivorous
have cheek pouches to store food
These monkeys live in very large groups, between 20-200 individuals with a strict hierarchy.
Examples of Cercopithecinae
Parapatric speciation in primates
Mandrills (right) and drills (left) are parapatric species
This includes humans
5 cusps on their molars (Y-5 molar pattern)
almost all of them make and use tools
allows for more fine manipulation of tools
Allopatric speciation in primates
Chimpanzees and Bonobos are an example of allopatric speciation.
Separated by a river.
Apes in Asia
Gibbons and Siamangs
Often called lesser apes because they are smaller.
Thought to be monogomous
Actually only socially monogomous
Raise offspring with their partner, but will copulate with neighbors
Defend territory by singing. The longer the pair is together, the longer the song
Only found on the islands of Sumatra and Borneo
Only solitary ape
There is still a dominant male
Distinguishable from its cheek pads and throat pouch.
Subordinate males look like females
Cannot go back to looking like a female.
Dominant males defend their territory with a long call which travels for miles.
The African Apes
Dominant male has silver colored fur on its back
Folivores, but do also eat fruit.
Large masticatory muscles
Have been known to commit infanticide,
Male kills the offspring
Breed with the females
Have the second most culture in apes
Hunt and have warfare.
Hunt in groups, usually searching for red colobus monkeys
They have warfare with rival groups of chimpanzees
Occasionally will kill rivals in their own group
Have the same type of culture.
Known as the make love not war ape.
Settle every dispute with sex. They also trade for things with sex.
This is the only female dominant ape.
Primates in Peril
Primates all across the world are under severe pressure from humans. In my opinion, these are the top 4 threats facing primates today.
Most hunting is done for meat
They have been doing this for generations.
Increased deforestation that this is REALLY negatively impacting primate populations.
Primates are killed so babies can be put into the pet trade.
Can be aggressive
Often times zoos take these, but they are perpetuating the problem
Not just monkeys, but apes as well.
Can be 2-3x as strong as humans
I chose not to show primate bite pictures, but if you want to, look them up. Even the loris has a nasty bite.
Primates in entertainment are often castrated to keep docile, and usually beaten when misbehaving.
Forests are being cut down very quickly, too quickly to be replaced.
Many primates will die out without a forest to live in. The only primates that don't need forests are the terrestrial quadrupeds.
One of the biggest problems is the palm oil industry.
(In Southeast Asia where gibbons, siamangs and orangutans live)
Most plantations are not sustainable
Instead of replanting, they cut down new forest.
Overlapping Resource Use
Primates and humans often need the same resources.
Creates direct conflict
usually ends with humans dealing with the pest primates
Terrestrial monkeys are starting to invade human habitat both in cities and in farm lands.
In some places, where monkeys are protected by a god, people will use bigger monkeys to help police the pest monkeys.
Examples of Colobinae
(apes & humans)
Example of reliance on olfactory senses
Example of verticle clingers and leapers
4 Theories About How Primates Made It To New World
Came over land bridge from Asia, down through North America
No fossils in N.America
Evolved on their own
Share too many traits with OW Primates
Rafting across Atlantic Ocean
Example of sympatric speciation
Offspring of Alloparenting Groups
Babies will eventually become the same color as the adults, but they are bright and obvious for the first few months.