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IEEE CLOUD 2011: Decision Support Tools for Cloud Migration in the Enterprise
Transcript of IEEE CLOUD 2011: Decision Support Tools for Cloud Migration in the Enterprise
But it can be difficult or meaningless to quantify indirect cost savings of, say, the improved time-to-market or flexibility provided by using public IaaS clouds.
Costs are important, but so are customer relationships, public image, flexibility, business continuity and compliance. Reviewed over 50 academic papers and industry reports and identified
Categorised as organisational, legal, security, technical or financial. Inform decision makers Elasticity Patterns included papers from IT outsourcing Summary Cloud computing is more than a technical improvement of datacentres. In enterprises, cloud = organisational change.
Consider benefits/risks from different stakeholder
perspectives. The spreadsheet provides a
starting point for risk assessment. Cloud Adoption Toolkit aims to support decision making.
Tools will be available from www.ShopForCloud.com Cost reduction is a major motivation for using clouds. The Cost Modelling tool takes into account: IT infrastructure, deployment options, elasticity patterns, various cloud
providers, changes to providers' cost models. Cloud Adoption Toolkit Supports decision making using a "bag of tools":
Technology Suitability Analysis
Benefits and Risks Assessment
Energy Consumption Analysis
Stakeholder Impact Analysis
Responsibility Modelling covered in
this talk Costs Several types of costs involved in cloud migration:
Data centre equipment and real estate
Systems engineering and software changes
Staff and training
... Cost uncertainty of IT infrastructure in the cloud vs. Facebooked, 25,000 users to 250,000 users in 3 days
20,000 new users per hour at peak resources consumed deployment options used cloud providers' pricing models Enterprise systems are likely to have more predictable usage patterns. Publications Khajeh-Hosseini A, Sommerville I, Bogaerts J, Teregowda P. 2011. Decision Support Tools for Cloud Migration in the Enterprise. IEEE 4th Int. Conf. on Cloud Computing.
Khajeh-Hosseini A, Greenwood D, Sommerville I. 2010. Cloud Migration: A Case Study of Migrating an Enterprise IT System to IaaS. IEEE 3rd Int. Conf. on Cloud Computing.
Khajeh-Hosseini A, Greenwood D, Smith JW, Sommerville I. 2011. The Cloud Adoption Toolkit: Supporting Cloud Adoption Decisions in the Enterprise. Software: Practice and Experience.
Greenwood D, Sommerville I, 2011. Responsibility Modelling for the Sociotechnical Risk Analysis of Coalitions of Systems. IEEE Int. Conf. on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics
Khajeh-Hosseini A, Sommerville I, Sriram I. 2010. Research Challenges for Enterprise Cloud Computing. LSCITS Technical Report. Slides and papers: www.cs.st-andrews.ac.uk/~akh
firstname.lastname@example.org Decision Support Tools
for Cloud Migration
in the Enterprise Benefits and Risks of Cloud Migration Rate each benefit/risk as 1-unimportant to 5-very important:
- Technical director of digital library
7 benefits and 13 risks identified as important
- Local IT manager of R&D division (local view)
8 benefits and 25 risks identified as important
- IT manager working with corporation's CIO (corporate view)
4 benefits and 15 risks identified as important Motivations and concerns of different stakeholders have to be considered during cloud migration decisions Important Unimportant Unimportant Important Benefits of cloud migration Risks of cloud migration Zynga Games launch new games on Amazon's cloud, monitor it for 3-6 months. If growth goes flat or predictable, move it into Zynga’s data centers. Ian Sommerville, Jurgen Bogaerts, Pradeep Teregowda Aim:
Support decision-makers during the migration of IT systems
to IaaS clouds in the enterprise.
Enterprises are interested in using clouds but where to start?
which systems? which deployment options? which providers?
Using the Cloud Adoption Toolkit, 2 tools covered here:
1. Cost Modelling
2. Benefits and Risks Assessment
Investigated 4 case studies, 2 covered here.
1. Model the costs as there is a significant difference
between clouds and deployment options
2. Migration risks and benefits need to be investigated from
different perspectives in the organisation Overview Academic Digital Library & Search Engine Index academic papers, users search for papers (called CiteSeerX)
Highly technical and automated system managed by small team
Deployed on 15 servers in university datacentre
2 million hits per day
Contains over 1.5 million documents
Needs 2TB of storage Elasticity patterns derived from historical data:
15GB/month increase in data transferred out (caused by increasing number of visitors)
17GB/month increase in size of storage Time Storage and data out Cost of different cloud providers Model costs and shop around for cloud providers
Switch off VMs when not in use Cost breakdown on AWS 66% 20% 10% 4% <1% Over 20,000 employees worldwide
European R&D division, 40 office staff & managers + 120 engineers
Develop specialised software used by the corporation
9 heavy-duty servers + 2 storage systems housed in local office Large Media Corporation 1. Non-elastic, leave virtual machines on 24x7
2. Elastic, user session VMs are on during day-time and compute VMs are on during night-time
3. Like option 2 but give each user a small VM rather than using a few large VMs to host all user sessions Need monitoring tools to discover elasticity patterns
Use the cloud's elasticity to reduce costs
Investigate different deployment options
Cloud infrastructure can have relatively high up-front costs Cost of different deployment options on AWS Move to thin-client setup, engineers use laptops to connect to servers on cloud ~30% Cheapest Most flexible $70,000 difference (which cloud provider is cheaper?) (which cloud deployment option is cheaper?) Cost Modelling Tool Tool contains details of prices from cloud providers Tool runs cost simulation between start and end dates
(uses several open source libraries) Tool produces report showing how the costs would vary over time A group can represent a
department, an IT system or a deployment option... Users create models of their systems using GUI or text editor Baseline and a set of patterns that describe how the baseline changes over time Temporary Pattern Permanent Pattern Permanent/Temporary:
during year in month on day at hour variation value; Example Storage baseline: 200GB
Permanent: during every year in every month +5;
Temporary: during every year in every month on 30 *2;
Permanent: during every year in Nov-Dec +15; Virtual machines (e.g. $0.08 per hour)
Type of instance (VM, Database, LoadBalancer...)
Predefined types based on CPU and memory
EC2: 4 regions x 4 purchase options x 10 instance types x 2 OS => over 300 prices
Storage (e.g. $0.12 per GB per month)
Data transfer (e.g. $0.15 per GB)
Miscellaneous: IP address, firewall, snapshots, VPN... usually priced at different tiers
e.g. first 20TB is $0.15/GB/month, upto 50TB is 0.12/GB/month