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Qing VS Russia
Transcript of Qing VS Russia
Worked along side Confucian scholar-bureaucrats whom they appointed
Supported the Manchus, who migrated into China from Manchuria and took over the land after the fall of the Ming
Most emperors tried to keep a hold of Chinese culture and tradition The Czars were absolute monarchs who ruled on the foundation of the "divine right of kings" - they received their authority from God and served as his lieutenants on earth.
Had a group of bureaucrats who were taught "Western" ideas but they did not have too much power
Relied on support from the small group of nobles
Most Czars tried to model Russia after Western Europe Both Czars and Emperors focused their efforts on expansions, developing their empire, and making their empire a great power, Czar Peter the Great I wanted to be like Western Europe, so I chopped off beards, created a Navy, and forced aristocrats to learn math. I divided the empire into 5 administrative provinces, promoted economic development, and tried to improve the conditions of the peasantry. Czar Catherine II Emperor Kangxi I organized flood control and irrigation projects, looked after welfare, promoted agriculture, and conquered Taiwan, Tibet, and Mongolia. Emperor Qianlong I maintained military garrisons in eastern Turkestan, encouraged merchants to settle, made Vietnam, Burma, and Nepal vassal states, and China was long and prosperous under my reign. } } The biggest difference between the two: The Qing favored political and social stability over technological innovation. The Russians focused on becoming more "western" and technologically innovated, which led to political and social instability. QING RUSSIA Like the Russians, the Qing Empire was affected by American food crops. Like the Qing, the Russian Empire was affected by American food crops. During the mid-17th century, Spanish merchants in the Philippines introduced American to China, allowing for the cultivation of uncultivated soil and an increase in food supply and population growth. Trade Goods consisted of silk, porcelain, lacquer-ware, and tea to the Indian Ocean Basin, central Asia, and Europe in exchange for spices, exotic products (birds and animal skins), and woolen textiles. After Zheng He's explorations of the Indian Ocean Basin were ended, foreign trade and interactions were limited and closely supervised. Government policy required the use of traditional skilled workers over the use of investments in new technologies. It allowed China to not only prosper, but gain a majority employed population. However! China lost the technological war to Europe. Their industrial revolutions did not coincide, and Europe became more technologically advanced than China, a reversal from previous time periods. Due to the Colombian Exchange, food crops native to America also made their way to Russia through trade with western Europe and East Asia. Crops like also led to an increase in food supply and the population. Trade Goods included fur, gold, silver, copper, iron, cheap grains, and timber, which they provided for western Europe, stimulating the growth of capitalism. Siberia is home to 26 major ethnic groups.
To get fur, the Russian government sought tribute from the natives, who were required to supply pelts on a regular basis. The system of tribute was accepted by some groups, but others resented the increasing demands and resisted the Russian encroachment. Beginning during the Romanov Dynasty, Russia went through a process of state transformation under Czar Peter the I (Peter the Great). He wanted Russia to be a military power like Western Europe, so Russian administrative methods and military techniques were "copies" of theirs. Professional soldiers had extensive training and used modern weapons.
Aristocrat's education focused on math and geometry.
A navy was created and they dominated the Baltic and other northern seas. Because Russia's efforts geared toward becoming a prowess like western European nations, they became more industrialized and technologically advanced than Qing China, although Russia was always a step behind of western Europe. Social Class Structure RUSSIA The Witte System was created by Count Sergeii Witte. It reformed commercial law, protected infant industries, constructed a railroad system (the Trans-Siberian Railroad connected the ends of the empire), invited foreign investors, and encouraged the establishment of savings banks. Overall, it led to an explosive growth in industry. REBELLIONS Czar
and his/her family Bureaucrats, Nobles, and Soldiers Landlords (if not Nobles) Serfs Social misfits, convicts, POWs Because the Russian Empire was an absolute monarchy and was organized as a serfdom, the Czar made law and policy, so there wasn't a need for many social classes, or large classes in general. There were few artisans and merchants. Qing Emperor
and his family Scholar Bureaucrats Gentry Peasants Artisans Merchants Soldiers "Mean People"
(slaves, indentured servants, prostitutes; etc) The Qing Empire was a strictly patriarchal society. Filial Piety was a very important virtue, and the men often had the women's feet bound to cause dependency on their husbands. Qing Empire Russian Empire The Taiping Rebellion Native Rebellions During the end of the 19th century, the peasantry was very discontented with the government.
There was increasing poverty, the majority of the land was in the hands of the small group of wealthy elites, and there was corruption in the government and increasing Opium addiction.
The Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864) was the most dangerous rebellion. It led the Qing dynasty to near collapse. The Qing and Russian Empires had differing social structures due to their different political and economic systems. However, both experienced the same grade of rebellions/revolutions. Many ethnic groups began to revolt against the Russian government when the demands for tribute increased.
In 1642, the Yakut people in central Siberia revolted against the oppression. For the following 40 years, there was a brutal retribution that forced the Yakuts out of their settlements and reduced their population by 70%.
This rebellion is just an example of the many other rebellions against the Russian government during this time. QING C
M "Ren, li, xiao~" Qing China was modeled after earlier dynasties, which restored and maintained traditional Chinese ways.
Scholar-gentries were well-educated and highly literate.
The exams were based on Confucian values and neo-Confucian documents, making Confucianism central to Qing China's education system.
In the 16th century, Roman Catholic missionaries returned to China in search of Chinese converts. However, they did not generate many converts and only succeeded in introducing European science and technology to China. R
A ORTHODOX CHRISTIANITY Because the Russian Empire was so expansive, it was multi-ethnic, multilingual, and multicultural.
The primary religion of the Russian Empire was Orthodox Christianity.
Government-sponsored missionaries had tried to convert the Siberian ethnic groups, but met with little success. There were few converts and those that did convert were of low social status.
When the empire underwent state transformation, Peter the Great forced a cosmetic transformation as well. A large majority of the population revolted as many were conservative Russians who resented western European ways and wanted to remain true Russians. So. Both the Qing Empire and the Russian Empire had their own major religion/philosophy. They both met with factors that tried to change the cultural aspects of their state, but each remained faithful to their traditions, Qing China more so than Russia. PSSSTTTT! LOOK FOR THE KEYS!