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Copy of Text Structure: 8th grade

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by

Jennifer Garza

on 16 December 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Text Structure: 8th grade

Text Structures
Cause and Effect
Sequence/Order
Chronological
Compare/Contrast
Problem/Solution
Description
A topic, idea, person, place, or thing is described by listing its features, characteristics, or examples.
for instance
such as…
to begin with
an example
to illustrate
characteristics include...
Signal Words
Example
Goose bumps make me shiver. I get little bumps on my skin. They look like sesame seeds.
Description
What specific topic, person, idea, or thing is being described?

How is it being described (what does it look like, how does it work, what does it do, etc)?

What is important to remember about it?
Guiding Questions
The sun is hot and,
as a result
, our ice cream is melting.
Example:
CAUSE
is a reason why something happens.
EFFECT
is what happens as a result.
Because
lightning hit the tree, the branch broke.
The show was canceled,
so
we went home.
Sometimes certain words are good clues that help you recognize a cause and effect relationship.
Because
since
resulting from
therefore
so
leading to
due to
First the lightning struck a tree,
so
a branch fell on our house.
As a result
, the roof of our house caved in.
What is most likely the EFFECT?
He touched the hot stove and, as a result he________
A. burned his hand
B. did not cook dinner
C. turned the stove off
D. turned the stove on
What is the most likely EFFECT?
Due to the hurricane, ____________
A. we ate dinner.
B. we played in the playground.
C.we could not play outside.
D. we went to the beach.
What is the most likely EFFECT?
Jim failed his math test because he did not _________
A. listen to his mom.
B. study after the test.
C. study before the test.
D. answered all the questions.
Imagine any story that you have read.
First there was a beginning...
then some events happened in the middle...
and finally there was an ending.
Events happen over time. To identify the order in which events happen, look for key words such as:
First
Initially
Second
Previous
Before
Now
Last
Finally
Third
Next
After
Then
The
first
thing I do after I get home from school is eat a snack.
Next
, I start my homework. If I finish my homework
before
suppertime,
then
I play outside.
Which statement describes the correct order of events?
A. I eat a snack before I do my homework.
B. I play outside before I do my homework.
C. I eat supper before I eat a snack.
Daniel and I like to play board games. First we choose a game. Next, we set it up. Then we play. We have a snack after we clean up. Finally, before we go to bed, we decide what game we will play tomorrow.
Which two words give you a clue about the order of the events in this paragraph?
A. after and before
B. choose and then
C. first and play
Comparisons
show how things are
similar
.
Contrasts
show how things are
different
.
Authors use key words and phrases to indicate comparisons and contrasts.
Clue Words and Phrases
Comparison

Like
Same
Just as much as
Equal
Contrast

Unlike
Different
More than
On the other hand
Graphic Organizers are frequently used to help compare and contrast.
Dillon and Trey were hiking to the top of a mountain. Dillon decided to take a, what he hoped would be, a shortcut. Trey stayed on the trail. When Dillon arrived at the top, he found that Trey had already eaten his lunch. Trey said it was time to go back down. Dillon didn't have time to eat lunch.
A. Both boys stayed on the same trail to the top.
B. Both boys got to eat their lunches at the top.
C. Both boys reached the top of the mountain.
How are Dillon and Trey
SIMILAR?
The writer presents a
problem
then expounds upon possible
solutions
for that problem.
Questions to Consider:
What is the problem?
What are the possible solutions?
Which solution is best?
How will you implement this solution?
A problem can be a question that needs an answer.
Sharon needs to know what day her teachers is giving the big math test.
To find out, she calls her classmate.
Problem
Solution
The problem is the issue in the text that the writer is bringing attention to.
Pretend that you are writing a story about the following problem:
Tracy and Kristin both wanted to watch television, but each of them wanted to see a different show.
Which statement describes a possible solution you could use in your story?
A. Tracy wants to watch a cowboy movie, but Kristin wants to watch cartoons.
B. Kristin told Tracy that she wanted to watch her favorite show.
C. Tracy and Kristin decided to take turns choosing a program each night.
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