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Persuasion, Prejudice, Discrimination
Transcript of Persuasion, Prejudice, Discrimination
To what extent is the media successful at such attempts of persuasion?
What factors determine whether they succeed or fail?
by Yale University Basic Ingredients:
1. Some source that directs a type of message
2. An audience Procedure:
Identify characteristics of communicators (sources), communications (persuasive messages) and audiences, and mix
Findings from Yale research: 1. Experts are more persuasive than non-experts 2. Messages that do not appear to be designed to change our attitudes are often more successful 3.Attractive communicators (sources) are more effective in changing attitudes than unattractive ones. 4. People are sometimes more susceptible to persuasion when they are distracted by some extraneous event 5. Individuals relatively low in self-esteem are often easier to persuade 6. Two sided approach is often more effective when the audience holds different attitudes to the persuader 7. Rapid speakers are more persuasive 8. Persuasion can be enhanced by arousing strong emotions (especially fear) ACTIVITY In groups of three, come up with a persuasive advertisement for a particular product (given by Betty).
Each group will be assigned with one of the previously mentioned 8 strategies to use.
Each group will perform (or at least describe) their 30 sec ad to the rest of the class.
Time allowed: 10 minutes HOW TO RESIST PERSUASION... REACTANCE: negative reactions to threats to one's personal freedom FOREWARNING:
advance knowledge that one is about to become the target of an attempt at persuasion SELECTIVE AVOIDANCE:
tendency to direct attention away from information that challenges existing attitudes How we sometimes change our own attitudes... Cognitive Dissonance when there is an inconsistency between two or more of their attitudes or between their attitudes and behaviour = discomfort and unpleasant therefore, motivates one to REDUCE dissonance by: 1) changing the attitude 2) acquire information to support the behaviour 3) trivialization (downplaying the importance of the attitude or behaviour) HYPOCRISY!!! < good reasons = > dissonance PREJUDICE
DISCRIMINATION PREJUDICE = negative attitude towards the members of some social group that is based solely on their membership in that group DISCRIMINATION = harmful ACTIONS directed toward the persons or groups who are the targets of prejudice involves beliefs about others, often reflected in stereotypes Stereotypes = mental shortcuts reduces cognitive effort to understand or form impressions of others The New Racism:
involves three components
ii) antagonism to demands
iii) resentment about special favours Tokenism:
trivial positive actions used as an excuse or justification for later forms of discrimination Reverse Discrimination:
treating or evaluating persons belonging to certain groups more favourably than members of other groups Betty Origins of Prejudice Realistic Conflict Theory:
View that prejudice stems from direct competition between various social groups over scarce and valued resources Social Learning View (of prejudice):
View that prejudice is acquired through direct and vicarious experience in much the same manner as other attitudes. Social Categorisation:
"Us" and "them" division of the world. Leads to the fundamental attribution error Breaking the Prejudice Cycle Learning NOT to hate Direct Intergroup Contact Recategorisation