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The United States and World War I
Transcript of The United States and World War I
The United States and World War I
America and the Great War:
What started it all????
British-Americans sided with Britain
German-Americans identified with Germany
Russian immigrants (many of which had fled persecution) did not want America to help the czar's regime.
Was neutrality even possible?
Irish-American immigrants were against any aid to the British
But...Russia was an ally of Britain and France.
Sinking of the Lusitainia (1915):
British liner sunk by German submarine
1,198 deaths (124 Americans)
Strengthened belief that America should prepare for war
Britain was our leading trading partner
American banks had loaned Britain money
Germany was "the natural foe of liberty."
-Germany suspended submarine warfare against "noncombatants"
-Wilson called for "peace without victory"
American forces arrived in Europe
The Fourteen Points
January 8th, 1918
Hoped points would be a basis for lasting peace
Open, public agreements
Freedom of the seas
Free trade (for nations agreeing to peace terms)
Reduction of military and weapons
Self-determination (voice in forming governments)
Independence for Russia; respect for boundaries
Belgium evacuated and sovereignty restored
French territory freed and restored, including Alsace-Lorraine
Readjustment of Italian borders to include all Italians
Autonomy for people of Austria-Hungary
Independence for Balkan states
Sovereignty for regions in the Ottoman Empire
Creation of independent Polish state
General association of nations to guarantee independence and peace
A Worldwide Upsurge
Russian Revolution spread fear and hope around the world
Communist governments came into power in Bavaria and Hungary
Strikes in Belfast, Glasgow, Winnipeg
Anarchists peasants in Spain took over land
Colonies around the world demanded independence
Allied forces landed in Russia to aid Vladimir Lenin's opponents in the civil war in Russia
Dilemma: Do we foster a positive relationship for trade purposes or do we fight communism?
Soviet Union NOT invited to the Versailles peace conference
Upheaval in the United States
700,000 killed by worldwide flu epidemic
Racial violence-riots and lynchings
Bombs exploded at homes of prominent leaders, such as A. Mitchell Palmer (Attorney General)
Workers called for freedom and democracy to be practiced in the industries of America
Greatest wave of labor unrest (strikes, walkouts) in American history
The Great Steel Strike (Chicago)-"Americanism vs. Alienism"
The Red Scare (1919-1920):
Russian Revolution, increase in strikes led to fears
A. Mitchell Palmer ordered raids of offices of radical and labor organizers in the country (The Palmer Raids)
Over 5,000 arrested, often without warrants
Hundreds of immigrants were deported
Effects of Palmer Raids:
Discussion concerning civil liberties
Distrust of labor organizations, immigrants
Weakening of Socialist Party in America
Sacco and Vanzetti:
Read "Why Were Sacco and Vanzetti Executed?" and be prepared to discuss how this case reflects the overall atmosphere of distrust during the Red Scare.
Paris Peace Conference:
Diplomats from over 32 nations, nationalities
Led by the "Big Four"
Germany and Russia were not invited
Part I: Paris Peace Conference
1) Read the information sheet for your leader at the end of the war.
2) Summarize what you hope to gain as a result of the peace talks. This list can include what you want for your nation or other nations, as well as how you want other nations to be treated.
Part II: The Treaty of Versailles
With the people sitting near you, summarize the main ideas of the articles of the Treaty of Versailles.
Part I. The Covenant of the League of Nations (2 points)
Part III. Boundaries of Germany (4-5 points)
Part V. Military, Naval, and Air Clauses (3-5 points)
Part VIII. Reparation (2 points)
"Unrestricted submarine warfare"
President Woodrow Wilson
Senator Henry Cabot Lodge (R):
Led the charge against the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations
"We would not have our country's vigor exhausted or her moral force abated, by everlasting meddling and muddling in every quarrel, great and small, which afflicts the world."
"To such a task we can dedicate our lives and our fortunes, everything that we are and everything that we have, with the pride of those who know that the day has come when
America is privileged to spend her blood and her might for the principles that gave her birth and happiness and the peace which she has treasured.
God helping her, she can do no other."
War Message to Congress (1917)
1) Outline Wilson's case against Germany.
2) How did Wilson frame the United States' involvement in the conflict? According to Wilson, what were Americans fighting for?
3) Based on Wilson's speech, what appear to be his ultimate goals regarding U.S. involvement in "the Great War?"
The League of Nations
In order to promote international co-operation and to achieve international peace and security
The Fourteen Points/The Treaty of Versailles
1) Compare and contrast Wilson’s Fourteen Points with the terms of the Treaty of Versailles.
2) How did the treaty represent a compromise between Wilson and the European Allied leaders?
"Big Stick Diplomacy"
"Speak softly and carry a big stick."
Negotiate, but be prepared for conflict should conflict arise
Used this ideology to justify intervention in Panama
(uprising against Columbia)
Roosevelt Corollary (1904)
(to the Monroe Doctrine)
United States had the right to exercise "an international police power in the Western Hemisphere."
(especially Latin America)
Economic investment and loans from American banks (not military intervention) to spread American influence
U.S. had the responsibility to "teach lessons of democracy"
"Go out and sell goods that will make the world more comfortable, and happy, and convert them to the principles of America."
Wilson said the U.S. should respect Latin American independence but...
"Moral imperialism" saw the MOST interventions in Latin America EVER
Others viewed Germany a an oppressive enemy of democracy
President Wilson seemed to support retaliation
Won 10 of 12 states that had adopted women's suffrage
-Without those votes, he would not have been reelected
Sent by Germany to Mexico
Proposed a German-Mexican alliance
Envisioned a world with freedom of seas, restrictions on armaments, and self determination for all nations
-3 events push American involvement
German unrestricted submarine warfare
The Zimmerman Telegram
The Russian Revolution
Wilson calls for a declaration of war
Bolsheviks (led by Vladimir Lenin) overthrow the Russian government and withdraw Russia from the war
Wilson issues the Fourteen Points
Leaders of the working class; foundations of Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Acceptance of obligations not to resort to war
Open, just, and honorable relations between nations
International law was the actual rule of conduct
Maintenance of justice and respect in the dealings of organized peoples with another
What do these all have in common?
Wilson was reelected-"He kept us out of war"
Wanted to see the destruction of Germany
David Lloyd George
-Middle man between U.S. and France
-Saw Germany as the barrier against Communism
-Did not want to completely devastate Germany
-Supported a moderate approach
-Wanted to punish German power, not the people
-Plan to maintain world peace
Primary Voices @ the Paris Peace Conference
Italy had fought on the side of the Allies, so expected equal treatment @ peace talks, but this did not happen.