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Expansion in the U.S.

AMSCO Chapter 12
by

Michelle Newcomb

on 12 November 2012

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Transcript of Expansion in the U.S.

1830-1860 Expansion
in the U.S. Annexation causes BIG trouble in 1846 The Mexican-American War Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo -- Mexican Cession Consequences of the War 1840s: disputed boundary between Maine (U.S.) and New Brunswick (Britain)

Problems:
Americans still consider British the enemy..."hard feelings"
Groups of American and Canadian lumbermen erupt in fighting

Aroostook War ("battle of the maps") later settled by Sec. State Daniel Webster and British ambassador Lord Alexander Ashburton
Webster-Ashburton treaty split disputed land between the two
Also settled Minnesota boundary Boundary Disputes Pioneer migration > U.S. desires for Texas Conflicts Over Texas Southerners not satisfied, want more gains--begin looking at Latin America for economic opportunity and established slavery Manifest Destiny: To the South Americans rushed to cross the "Great American Desert" without giving the Plains a passing glance...war will come and go before they notice. Settling the Western Territories Economic growth is remarkable during the era Expanding Economy Manifest Destiny: the idea that America had a "divine mission" to extend its power and civilization across North America...

Later expanded to include Cuba, Central America, and Pacific and Caribbean Islands...

Driven by:
nationalism population increase
economic development technology
reform ideals

Not always unified: northerners believe its a southern excuse for slavery expansion... 1823: Mexico wins independence from Spain, wants to attract settlers to its new northern frontier, Texas

Stephen Austin: uses land grant to bring 300 families, begins steady increase of Americans

1829: Mexico 1) outlaws slavery and 2) requires conversion to Roman Catholicism for all Texans--Americans refuse--Mexico closes Texas to further settlement--Americans ignore

By 1830, Americans outnumber Mexicans 3 to 1 1834: General Santa Anna takes over in Mexico, enforces law in Texas

1836: Sam Houston leads Texans to declare independence

Santa Anna attacks The Alamo, killing all Texans inside

Battle of San Jacinto: Sam Houston captures Santa Anna--he is forced to recognize Texan independence north of the Rio Grande

Mexican legislature refuses to acknowledge the treaty Revolt and Independence President of Lone Star Republic: Sam Houston -- he applies to be annexed to the U.S.

Jackson and VanBuren: NO -- they worry about 1) northern opposition to slavery expansion and 2) cost of war with Mexico

Tyler (1841-45): worked toward annexation, but Senate refuses to ratify the treaty...meanwhile, in Oregon and Maine... Annexation? Denied. more serious in Oregon -- at one point, claimed by US, Spain, Russia and GB

British claim: fur trade
US claim: Columbia River discovery, Lewis and Clark Expedition, trading posts in Astoria, Manifest Destiny sentiment on the rise More Boundary Disputes Democrats: A Hot Mess Election of 1844 Whigs: Bless Their Hearts Van Buren?!?
northern wing
anti-slavery
NO to TX annex Calhoun
southern wing
pro-slavery
YES to TX annex Henry Clay
at first, YES to annex
changed to NO annexation

NY voters go to Liberty party
Clay loses...again. James K. Polk
convention can't decide, go with Polk instead
Jackson's protege, pro-slavery
YES to ALL annexation (OR/CA too)
"Fifty-four Forty, or Fight!" (see map)
Close election, "dark horse" Polk wins Outgoing Pres. Tyler pushes Texas annexation through Congress as a resolution: no Senate approval required

Polk settles Oregon at the 49th parallel (southern half of territory)

Many northerners dislike the agreement: removes a lot of potential free state territory...BUT...

By then, war has broken out in Mexico, so detractors let it go to focus on the war Finally...annexation, Oregon and WAR Polk sends John Slidell as envoy with two goals:
1. persuade Mexico to sell NM and CA territories
2. settle the border dispute b/t TX and Mexico Mexico refuses: had already cut diplomatic ties, so...no sale, and border is Nueces River, not Rio Grande Meanwhile, Polk sends Gen. Zachary Taylor to the disputed area
April: Mexico crossed Rio Grande and captured/killed American soldiers
Polk already had war message...he sends it...claims "American blood shed on American soil"
Northern Whigs (including Representative Abraham Lincoln) resist, but they are outvoted -- war is declared Small armies--never over 1,500--take Santa Fe, New Mexico territory, southern California

June: John C. Fremont overthrows Mexican rule in southern CA, proclaims it independent--"Bear Flag Republic"

February 1847: Taylor drove Mexican army back to northern Mexico, Winfield Scott invades central Mexico

September 1847: Scott captures Mexico City Military Campaigns Fremont Taylor Scott 1. Rio Grande = southern U.S. border
2. CA and NM lands go to the U.S.--"The Mexican Cession"--for $15 million and takeover of claims against Mexico by U.S. citizens Whigs oppose: "immoral" for slavery expansion
Southerners oppose: they want ALL of Mexico
Treaty ratified anyway Wilmot Proviso: PA congressman David Wilmot
Early in war, proposed bill to forbid slavery in any territory won
Passed the House twice, defeated both times in the Senate Prelude to war????
acquisition of vast lands renews sectional debate over slavery
northern view of the war: as southern plot to expand slavery and power
many view the Proviso as the first round in the political Civil War Ostend Manifesto

Polk offers to buy Cuba for $100 million, Spain refuses

Small expeditions attempt to capture Cuba, but fail and are executed

1852: New President Pierce sent diplomats to Ostend, Belgium to try and secretly buy Cuba from Spain

The agreement (manifesto) that they presented was leaked to the press
Anti-slavery congressmen are furious, Pierce drops it Walker Expedition

1855: adventurer William Walker takes over Nicaragua--trying to develop a pro-slavery empire
coalition of Central American countries invade, Walker is executed Manifest Destiny: To the South Clayton-Bulwer Treaty

1850: treaty w/ Britain, says neither can build a canal in Central Amer. without the other Gadsden Purchase

1853: Pierce purchases strip of land in southern NM and AZ
mostly desert, he needs it for a railroad line Mountain Men
traded furs with Natives since 1820s, provided early info about trails
James Beckwourth, Jim Bridger, Jedediah Smith, Kit Carlson Overland Trails
large group, clearing forests and farming
Oregon, Califonia, Santa Fe, Mormon trails
hardships:
deserts
Rockies
Sierras
Cascades
heavy snows
disease
depression 1848: Gold is discovered in the California hills Mining Frontier 1848-1850: California
1850-1860: Colorado, Nevada, the Black Hills (Dakotas)

towns pop up when strike is discovered, die when the lode is empty

California population:
1848: 14,000
1860: 380,000

By the 1860s, 1/3 of miners in the west were Chinese Sutter's Mill
1850 Sutter's Mill
Modern Reconstruction Farmers and businessmen take advantage of the westward migration of the mid-1800s. Farming and Urban Frontier Farming Frontier

Pioneer families move west--even squatters can purchase land
small parcels (40 acres) offered to get volume of settlers
$200-$300 for the trip--very "middle class"
isolation gave way to community: schools, churches, clubs Urban Frontier
cities attract professionals in service and shopkeeping
ex: Denver, San Francisco, Salt Lake City Industrial Technology

After 1840, industrialization spreads to the Old Northwest
factories: shoes, clothing, firearms
inventions: sewing machine, telegraph Railroads

1840-1860: huge railroad expansion, U.S. largest industry
Needed capital and labor > corporations
Needed land > gov't land grants, loans, tax breaks
United East and West, proved an advantage in Civil War Foreign Commerce

Growing imports / exports:
scheduled trans-Atlantic crossings
whale oil demand > whaling boom in New England
clipper ships can do NY to CA in 3 months
steamships: larger capacity and less dependent on weather
Matthew C. Perry gets coveted trade agreement with Japan
Full transcript