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Gender Equallity and Disaster Response

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Muhammad Awais

on 30 January 2014

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Transcript of Gender Equallity and Disaster Response

Where does Pakistan Fit?
What is a relation ship?

The OECD Development Centre

Violence against women
Reproductive integrity
Legal Age of Marriage
Early marriage
Parental authority

Missing women
Fertility preferences

Access to land
Acces to bank loans and other forms of credit.
Acess to property other land
Social Institutions and Gender Index 2012

2012 SIGI framework: Drivers of

Acces to public space
Political voice.
Global Food Security Index

Source: World Development Indicators, World Bank, 2011 and OECD 2012 Gender, Institutions and Development Database

Low cereal yields related to high levels of discrimination against women
(controlling for GDP, urbanisation,
% of agriculture in the economy and fertiliser use)

Gender Difference in Planning and Management
Disaster & Poverty
The greater the inequality in a society, the more poor people are vulnerable to disasters
The poorest men & women suffer the biggest losses
Disasters make existing inequalities bigger
Reducing the impact of disasters (mitigation) requires attention to poverty reduction & increased equality
Women & girls are disproportionately poor, with less access to income, housing, land, education, mobility, information

Reducing poverty = increased equality = increased resilience
Men and women in Pakistan have used environmental and traditional knowledge to mitigate disaster for generations:

Food preservation
House construction
Traditional systems of exchange
Natural resource management

What we know?
Important information and ideas for disaster preparedness can come from ANYONE
in the community – men, women, boys, or girls of any age or social background.

Roles and specialized knowledge changes over time.
Over time, traditional environmental knowledge can be lost.

Whole communities become vulnerable if there is unequal access to early warning or resources.
Communities are vulnerable when they fail to take advantage of new knowledge, skills & opportunities.
Communities are stronger when decisions are based on the knowledge, skills and ideas of ALL groups.

We are getting better, but inequality between men and women can still cause problems for disaster managers.
Women and children are still 3 to 14 times more likely to die in natural disasters than men

What determines Vulnerability?
Disaster preparedness measures often do not reach women & girls, and some other groups
Early warning systems are less likely to reach women & girls
People who need special attention are often not identified before hand
Women’s responsibility for others in emergency (children, parents) increases their risk and workload
Some cultural rules endanger women (clothing, movement restrictions). They are less likely to know how to swim or climb trees.
After disasters there is an increase in violence against women and children, and other negative, high-risk behaviours
Trained rescue & relief workers are still mainly men, sometimes unaware of different needs
Economic, political, social status
Income and resources
Geographic location, legal or immigration status
Gender, age, ethnicity, occupation
Caste, race, sexual orientation, religion, physical ability, psychological condition…

So, are women vulnerable?

If you say a group is vulnerable, it is good to briefly explain why. This demonstrates that you have ANALYZED the situation of different groups.
Disasters Managers have learned:
Resource allocation decisions made only by men have often been found to be unfair
Lack of food often results in women and girls getting less food within the home
Women’s needs are not always taken into account in pre-positioned supplies
Expectations of men’s role in emergencies often also places them in danger

In Camps:
The proportion of men, women, and children in Pakistan is roughly 20%-20%-60%.
When families are displaced, men often migrate for work or stay behind to protect assets. This means the proportion of women and child in camp populations is often more than 90%.
This has implications for camp management and how aid is delivered.
Women and men – and boys and girls - face different needs & problems when displaced or in camps
What we know:
Women’s local community knowledge, strong social networks, key roles in families and active work roles make them resourceful social actors in a crisis
Women in disaster planning & management increases the identification of risks & protective strategies
Women-managed distribution improves targeting of most vulnerable households
Clear & known distribution criteria improves equal access for women & girls
Women-managed evacuation centers increase safety & security
Mixed (male/female) needs & damage assessment teams pay attention to social as well as infrastructure requirements

How many people are standing behind the fence?

Who is vulnerable and why
Information and Statistics
Why is it important to collect sex-disaggregated information? What is the purpose?

What do we learn when information is disaggregated by age? When is this useful?
* The Factory 2012: http://factory.wfp.org/trends

Follow the Money: CFW & CFT *

2013 Ranking
Gender-sensitive indicators

Humanitarian do far more to promote gender equallity than we actually report.
Are there other outcomes you would LIKE to report on, with respect to gender equality and/or women’s empowerment?
Are there other indicators you would find useful?
Which of these indicators do you feel are NOT relevant or meaningful?

HOW Disaster Preparedness, Planning and Management?
Hyogo Framework for Action on DRR - Priorities:

1. Make disaster risk reduction a priority, involving men, women, boys & girls in preparedness & mitigation planning, and all aspects of response, recovery & rehabilitation;
2. Improve risk information & early warning, recognizing that the daily routines and social conditions of women and men, girls and boys place them differently at risk, and engage them in different communication networks;
3. Build a culture of safety and resilience for all communities, rooted in a solid knowledge-base of disaggregated data and clear information about men and women; and using the capacities and resources of women and men to minimize harm;
4. Reduce the underlying risk factors that create different levels and situations of vulnerability and danger;
5. Strengthen preparedness for effective response at all levels, by promoting the inclusion of women in disaster-related professions where they are under-represented, and actively partnering with community women’s groups.

nalyze gender differences
esign services to meet the needs of all
ccess ensured for all
articipate equally
rain women and men equally
ddress GBV in sector programs
ollect, analyze and report on SADD*
arget actions based on gender analysis
oordinate actions with all partners

Way Forward
Increase the active involvement of women’s and disability organizations in formal disaster planning & operations
Create an INCLUSIVE and REPRESENTATIVE national resource network of actors to support disaster management organizations, for planning, policy & action
Create INCLUSIVE and REPRESENTATIVE provincial and district networks of women and other advocates who will support disaster preparedness and response

Questions to ensure attention to equality & protection in project design:
How can we make our planning process more INCLUSIVE and REPRESENTATIVE?
How can we get more women/ older/ young/ disabled men and women to be active in disaster planning and response?
Can we use our planning and preparedness activities to also raise the status of women in their community?
Can we do anything to address the particular threats and dangers faced by men, women, boys and girls in this context?
Is there any other marginalized group to whom we should be paying special attention?

Gender Markers in Project design

Tools and Checklists
for inclusive, integrated Projects

The IASC Gender Marker

Coherent programming

Project Activities
Context/Needs Analysis
Does it describe main factors or conditions affecting different groups within the affected population?
Does it describe the different impacts of the crisis on different groups?
Does it provide a brief, comprehensive overview of key differences between relevant socio-economic / gender / cultural groups?

(Note that good social analysis should not need to use the word “gender”.)

Are they logically derived from the analysis?
Do they recognize and meet the immediate practical need of women and men/ boys and girls?
Do they equitably meet the different needs of different groups?
Do they contribute to greater equality between different groups, or do they reinforce the status quo?

Gender Marker Vetting Form

Gender Marker Trends in 6 Countries
2010 - 2013
Kenya, Niger, OPT, Somalia, Yemen, Zimbabwe

2011 2012 2013

Progress on Gender in Sudan
Code 0 (Gender blind)

Code 1

Code 2 (A+B)
(Gender well integrated)

Findings (Needs) – Activities – Outcomes

CAP 2012 Donor Survey, Findings, Sept 2012
28. How valuable to you as a donor is the Gender Marker score per project?

The ECHO Gender-Age Marker
Step 1. Assess whether the action fulfils the four Gender-Age Marker criteria.

1) Gender and Age Analysis / SADD: Does the proposal contain an adequate and brief Gender-Age analysis, and does the final report contain sex- and age- disaggregated data for beneficiaries? (Yes) (Not sufficient)
2) Adapted Assistance: Is the assistance adapted to the specific needs / capacities of different gender and age groups?
3) Negative Effects: Does the action prevent or mitigate negative effects?
Adequate Participation: Do relevant gender and age groups adequately participate in the design, implementation and evaluation of the action?

(Yes) (Not sufficient)

Gender-Age Marker Scoring

The token node to equality

Cosmetic sentences that don’t reflect understanding of the differences between men & women DON’T add value to a document, e.g.
“vulnerable women and children”
“in line with our gender policy”
“We will also target women-headed households and widows, ensuring the mainstreaming of gender, security, climate change adaptation and capacity-development initiatives.”

Gender Equality and Disaster Response
HOW can we address gender differences in Disaster Preparedness, Planning and Management?
Different roles & knowledge result in different understanding and interpretation of risk, including different reactions & responses to warnings of approaching hazards
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