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The Battle of Iwo Jima
Transcript of The Battle of Iwo Jima
Rachel Steinberg Summary Who Where and When Why Iwo Jima was ‘softened up’ by bombing raids for more than two months before the actual amphibious assault.For three days prior to the attack, six American battleships had launched a continuous barrage on the island. Within the region, the Americans were led by Admiral Raymond Spruance The overall commander of the campaign was Admiral Chester Nimitz. The landing forces were under the command of Lieutenant-General Holland ‘Howling Mad’ Smith. The bulk of the amphibious attack was done by Marines.
There were about 22,000 soldiers under the command of Lieutenant-General Kuribayashi on the Japanese side. Despite its size, Iwo Jima was considered to have great tactical importance. There were two airfields on the island – under Japan’s control; they could be used by Japanese fighter planes to attack American bombers on their flights to Japan. Under American control, the airfields could be used as emergency landing bases for damaged airplanes in the bombing raids. They could also be used for American fighter planes to escort the bombers, as they needed smaller runways for take-off. Timeline Battle of Iwo Jima The battle of Iwo Jima took place on the island of Iwo Jima, which means Sulfur Island, The capture of Iwo Jima was part of a three-point plan the Americans had for winning the war in the Far East.The tiny island had taken America over one month to take. The Marines lost 6,891 men killed and 18,070 wounded. Out of the 22,000 Japanese soldiers on the island, only 212 were taken prisoners Iwo Jima is a very small Pacific island – just over 4.5 miles long and 2.5 miles wide which lies at the foot of the Bonin chain of islands, south of the main Japanese island of Honshu
First landing was February 19th, 1945. Ended on March 26th. Timeline The first day of the landings was February 19th, 1945. The Marines took heavy casualties, as the American bombings had not been effective. What it had done was to churn up the beaches and the immediate hinterland and had given the Japanese far more opportunities to find hiding-holes for snipers. It also meant that American movement inland was hindered .
the Americans had cut the island in two by the end of the first day – despite taking over 2,400 casualties. Timeline On Day 2, the Marines attacked Mount Suribachi. Here they found fanatical Japanese defence
Suribachi was taken on February 23rd after three days of fighting. Timeline wo Jima proved a difficult and bloody target to take – frequently the Americans only advanced at several hundred metres per day. By March 11th, the Japanese were trapped in an area around Kitano Point
By March 16th, the island was declared secure and all resistance had ceased by March 26th. Importance As mentioned before, the capture of Iwo Jima was part of a three-point plan the Americans had for winning the war in the Far East.
What the battle did show the Americans was how far the Japanese would go to defend their country – a decision that was to influence the use of the atomic bombs in Hiroshima andNagasaki. Works Cited Navy Department Library:
History Learning Site: