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AP Government and Politics: FINAL Study Guide Project (Constitutional Under Penning)
Transcript of AP Government and Politics: FINAL Study Guide Project (Constitutional Under Penning)
- Adela Espinosa
- Ana Orozco
- Bianca Garcia
- Bryan Giron
- Jasmine Cortez
- Gladys Meza
- Miguel Tornes
- Monica Tamayo
- Raekwon Morgan
- Vanessa Lemus
- Veronica Serrano
- Zaynab AbdulQadir-Morris
The Amendments and Bill of Rights
Guarantee, limit and reserve
The 27 Amendments to the U.s. Constitution
Constitutional Ratification Process
a number of personal freedoms,
the governments power and
some powers for the states and the public
Bianca & Monica
What is Federalism?
Seperation of Powers
What is the purpose of having a system that separates the goverment's powers?
Checks and Balances
How does the checks and balances system keep our society functioning?
1. Freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition.
2. Right to keep and bear arms in order to maintain a well regulated militia.
3. No quartering of soldiers.
4. Freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures.
5. Right to due process of law, freedom from self-incrimination, double jeopardy.
6. Rights of accused persons, e.g., right to a speedy and public trial.
7. Right of trial by jury in civil cases.
8. Freedom from excessive bail, cruel and unusual punishments.
9. Other rights of the people.
10. Powers reserved to the states.
Federalism is a system of government where there is one strong, central controlling authority, or the principles of a political party called the Federalists.
One strong main government for the entire United States that has a lot of power and the individual states don't have much power.
The political party that believed in a central controlling government, and advocacy of a centralized system of government.
The framers of the Constitution decided to base the American governmental system on this idea of three separate branches: executive, judicial, and legislative.
In the United States, the executive branch is headed by the president nd includes bureaucracy. The legislative branch includes both houses of congress; The Senate and the House of Representatives. The judicial branch consist of the supreme court and the lower federal court.
The basic purpose of the checks and balances system is to keep one branch or entity from holding too much decision making power. Each branch checks the other in some way so that one branch also doesn't have too much power in hindering the others from doing its job. Without this system, one or two branches would be too powerful and possibly even render one such branch obsolete due to it not being able to perform its abilities.
The system of checks and balances works by dividing the power into three different branches. For example, in order for a law to be passed, the legislative branch introduces and votes on a bill. The bill then goes to the executive branch, where the president decides to sign the bill or not. If he signs it, it becomes a law. If he doesn't sign, it is a veto. However, the legislative branch gets another chance. With enough votes, the legislative branch can override the executive branch's veto, and it becomes a law. After the law is passed, if someone believes a law is unfair, a lawsuit can be filed. If the legislative branch does not agree with the way in which the judicial branch has interpreted the law, they can introduce a new piece of legislation. and the process starts all over again.
The three branches are distinct and have checks and balances on each other. In this way, no one branch can gain absolute power or abuse the power they are given.
- Government depends upon the consent of the governed
Equality of Voting
1 person = 1 vote
The voting should be representative.
Each citizen have enough chances to express their political perspectives.
Citizen Control of the Agenda
Helps leaders and citizens with issue around the government.
Anti-Federalists be like...
AP Government and Politics:
FINAL Study Project
Where did it go down ?
> Independence Hall, Philadelphia
When did it go down ?
> May 25th - September 17th 1787
Who was there when it went down?
>55 delegates representing all original states, except Rhode Island who refused to attend.
Equality: State representation, Slavery, and whether to ensure political equality. New Jersey vs Virginia Plan
Economy: State to state currency, Congress(money troubles), Interstate Commerce
Individual Rights: Bill of Rights
The government must give equal rights
to all that subject to its laws.
The Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
The purpose of the Articles of Confederation was to create a confederation of states whereby each state retained "its sovereignty, freedom, and independence. It's weaknesses are as followed:
Each state only had ONE vote in Congress REGARDLESS of size.
Congress did NOT have the power to tax
There was no national court system
Laws required a 9/13 majority vote to pass
The lack of an executive branch
Among other things..
A theory that describe the power relationship within a society.
The power lies in position of authority in key economic and political institution.
The elites is different because they have personal resource and investments in the government.
The Constitutional Convention was able to get rid of the Articles of Confederation(bunch of flaws) and come up with an entirely new document to serve as the guidelines for our country's government aka The Constitution.
The creation of a Bicameral Congress, to ensure both equal and proportional representation between states.
-They provide litigation and legislative writing to influence politicians.
- A voice for the public and the public's opinion.
One of the impacts is: the separation of powers, and how the constitution has being a success in the sense that it has work all this years.
is based off of
three separate branches.
The Executive branch
The California Legislature branch
The Judicial branch
The Executive Branch
This branch is lead by the state Governor
Jerry Brown has been the California governor since 2011-present
Chief of command for the California National Guard.
State of State Address
signing or vetoing legislation, or making political appointments, whenever the governor leaves the state.
The Lieutenant Governor sits on the Board of Regents of the University of California, California State University Board of Trustees, Ocean Protection Council, California Emergency Council, and State Lands Commission
California Attorney General
As the state’s chief law officer, ensures that the laws of the state are uniformly and adequately enforced.
Heads the Department of Justice, which is responsible for providing state legal services and support for local law enforcement.
Acts as the chief counsel in state litigation.
Oversees law enforcement agencies, including District Attorneys and Sheriffs
Secretary of state of California
Chief Election Officer
responsible for the state archives
California State Treasurer
As the state’s banker, manages the state’s investments.
Administers the sale of state bonds and notes and is the investment officer for most state funds.
Chairs or serves on several commissions, most of which relate to the marketing of bonds.
Pays out state funds when spent by the Controller and other state agencies.
California State Controller
As the state’s chief fiscal officer, acts as the state’s accountant and bookkeeper of all public funds.
Administers the state payroll system and unclaimed property laws.
Serves on 76 boards and commissions, including the Board of Equalization, Franchise Tax Board, CalPERS, and CalSTRS.
Conducts audits and reviews of state operations. The office performs a multitude of financial audits, compliance audits and attestations. The areas of government audited and reviewed by the State Controller include California School Districts, the California State Lottery, Oil and Gas Lease Royalties, State Agencies, RDAs, and a multitude of local governments. It is considered one of the premiere audit agencies of the State of California.
California State Superintendent of Public Instruction
spokesperson for public schools
provides education policy and direction to local school districts
serves as an ex officio member of governing boards of the state’s higher education system
Other Executive Powers of California
consist of two houses
The California State Senate
President of the senate- Darrell Steinberg
Senate minority leader- bob huff
The California State Assembly
Speaker of the assembly- John Perez
Assembly Minority Leader- Connie Conway
The Unwritten Constitution is a set of unspecified laws, not listed in the Constitution.
Sets of ideas and processes that are accepted as part of the American government.
Many aspects of the unwritten Constitution are so ingrained into our system that many don't realize that they are not laws or provisions of the Constitution.
The Elastic Clause, also known as the
Necessary and Proper Clause
, allows Congress to do what it must to carry out its power.
The clause was a problem when the Constitution was being ratified.
Many thought that this clause gave the government too much power.
Alexander Hamilton created the first National Bank under the elastic clause.
Why? Because he wanted/needed to.
This isn't really amending the Constitution, because only the formal way does that, but it serves as the makeup of the Supreme Court and their changes. The laws can be interpreted differently and be deemed "constitutional" in different ways by different courts, which, arguably, has the same effect as amending the document itself.
Ratification of a Constitutional Amendment by the Legislative Branch (2/3 majority in each house), then ratification by the states (3/4 of the states must ratify)
11. Prohibits citizens of one state or foreign country from suing another state.
12. added the separation of the president and vice president onto two different ballots
13. abolishes slavery
14. citizenship, due process, equal protection
15. This amendment granted black men the right to vote.
16. Federal Income tax
17. Direct election of senators
19. Women's Suffrage
20. dates at which federal government elected offices end. In also defines who succeeds the president if the president dies
21. repeals prohibition
22. two terms for president
23. District of Columbia - people can vote for president
24. ends poll taxes
25. succession President ---- Vice President----Speaker of the House of Representatives
26. Voting age 18
27. Congressional pay raises can't go into effect until after the next congressional election
The idea of the social contract is one of the foundations of the American political system. This is the belief that the state only exists to serve the will of the people, and they are the source of all political power enjoyed by the state. They can choose to give or withhold this power.
The Social Contract: Defined...
The agreement with which a person enters into civil society. The contract essentially binds people into a community that exists for mutual preservation. In entering into civil society, people sacrifice the physical freedom of being able to do whatever they please, but they gain the civil freedom of being able to think and act rationally and morally. Rousseau believes that only by entering into the social contract can we become fully human.
The Social Contract: Context
Jean Jacques Rousseau and John Locke each took the social contract theory one step further.
Rousseau wrote The Social Contract, or Principles of Political Right. (Explaining that the government is based on the idea of popular sovereignty. Thus the will of the people as a whole gives power and direction to the state.)
John Locke also based his political writings on the idea of the social contract. (He stressed the role of the individual. He also believed that revolution was not just a right but an obligation if the state abused their given power.)
These ideas had a huge impact on the Founding Fathers (esp Thomas Jefferson and James Madison).
SOCIAL CONTRACT THEORY:
"Man was born free, but everywhere is in chains!"
J. J. Rousseau
(The Basic Political Writings, 1987, p. 49)
Ratification of the constitution was defined by the Federalist Papers, written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay. These documents contain some of the most basic and brilliantly argued philosophical underpinning of American government. Two famous papers are Federalist #10 & #51.
Federalist #10 argued the separation of powers and federalism check the growth of tyranny. If "factious leaders...kindle a flame within their particular states.." leaders can check the spread of the "conflagration through other states." Likewise, each branch of the government keep the other two from gaining a concentration of powers.It also argued that the Constitutional principles guard against the dangers of a direct democracy, or the "common passion or interest...felt by a majority of the whole...such democracies have ever been spectacles of turbulence and contention." Madison argued that a long-lived democracy must manage its interest groups, even though these "factions" can never be eliminated.
Federalist #51 explained why strong government is necessary. "If men were angels, no government would be necessary. If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary."
The Bill of Rights JAM!
California Judicial Branch
this branch basically interprets and applies the California constitution and the the California laws .
it consists of three different courts: The Supreme Court, The Court of Appeal, and The Superior court.
The Enlightenment Philosophies
What was the Enlightenment?
The Two Fundamental Characteristics of the Philosophy of Enlightenment are:
1. faith in the European Reason and human rationality to reject the tradition and the pre-established institutions and thoughts;
2. Search for the practical, useful knowledge as the power to control nature.
The Age of Enlightenment was a cultural movement of intellectuals beginning in the 17th and 18th century Europe emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition. The main purpose was to reform society using reason by challenging ideas grounded in tradition and faith.