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AP Biology: Vocabulary Definitions

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Jenna Balk

on 28 August 2014

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Transcript of AP Biology: Vocabulary Definitions

1. Adaptation of an Animal
AP Biology: Vocabulary Definitions
By: Jenna Balk

Similar to the adaptation of an animal, adaptation of a plant also refers to its ability to preserve itself despite a changing habitat. This picture fits this definition because cacti had to adapt and continue to adapt to survive in such a harsh climate as the desert.
2. Adaptation of a Plant
An arthropod is any invertebrate which has an exoskeleton, a divided body, jointed appendages, and often a chitinous shell. Arthropods include insects, arachnids, myriapods, and crustaceans. This picture fits this definition because crabs are classified as a type of arthropod.
3. Arthropod
Amylase, present in the saliva of humans and other mammals, is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of starch into sugars. This picture fits this definition because this is saliva, where amylase is primarily found.
4. Amylase
Cellulose is an insoluble organic compound that is the main structural constituent of plant cell walls. It is a polysaccharide consisting of many linked glucose monomers. This photo fits the definition because potatoes are a great source of cellulose and starch.
5. Cellulose
The Calvin Cycle is a series of reactions, taking place in the stroma of chloroplasts, that results in the conversion of carbon dioxide into organic molecules that are needed to make new cells.
6. Calvin Cycle
Annelids are a large phylum of segmented worms, including leeches, ragworms, and earthworms. This picture fits the definition because there are (usually) worms in this cooler, and instead there is a nice cartoon worm, which can be classified as an annelid. :)
7. Annelid
Archaebacteria are a kingdom of prokaryotic single-celled microorganisms. Archaebacteria have many unique properites that separate them from the other domains of life, including their reliance on the ether lipids and their tendency to gather energy from many different sources. They are usually found in extremely hot environments. This picture fits this definition because archaebacteria are found in insane heat, and they would typically be found in boiling water.
8. Archaebacteria
9. Chitin
Consisting of polysaccharides, chitin is a fibrous substance which forms the main constituent in cell walls of fungi and in the exoskeleton of arthropods. This picture fits the definition because chitin is one of the main substances in the exoskeleton of these crabs.
10. Basidiomycete
Basidiomycota is a type of filamentous fungus whose spores develop in basilica and are composed of hyphae. Examples of basidiomycetes are familiar mushrooms and toadstools. They reproduce via the formation of specialized club-shaped end cells called basidia that typically bear outside meiospores. This picture fits the definition because these mushrooms are classified as basidiomycota.
11. Angiosperm
Angiosprem, otherwise known as flowering plants, are the most diverse group of land plants. They are seed-producing plants and are distinguishable by characteristics including flowers, endosperm within seeds, and production of fruit containing the seeds. This picture fits the definition because
12. Endosperm
Endosperm is the part of a seed that surrounds the embryo of a flowering plant and provides its sustenance often in the form of starch, proteins, and other nutrients. This picture fits the definition because peaches produce endosperm around the time of fertilization.
13. Autotrophs
Autotrophs (in Greek, meaning "self-feeding") are organisms that form nutritional organic substances (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) from simple inorganic substances like carbon dioxide. This picture fits this definition because dandelions are autotrophs, using the process of photosynthesis to create food and nutrients for itself.
14. Endotherm
An endothermic animal is an animal that maintains its own body temperature using its heat freed from their internal bodily functions independent from their enviorment; a warm blooded an animal. This picture fits the definition because it is of my dog, and dogs are endothermic.
15. Insect
An insect is a group of invertebrates within the arthropod phylum that have a body of three parts (head, thorax, and abdomen), a chitinous exoskeleton, three pairs of jointed legs, one pair of antennae, and compound eyes. Insects are among the most assorted groups of animals on Earth, encompassing more than half of all known organisms and having over 1 million different species. These pictures fit the definition because Tracey is one of the many types of insects on the planet. Consequently, Tracey is one of the larger species and I have no clue what exactly she is. However, I do know that she has a lot of bodily juice and guts that were released when she was run over by a car.
16. Exoskeleton
An exoskeleton is the external skeleton that offers protection and support to an animal's body. Some of the larger exoskeletons are now nicknamed "shells". Animals that have exoskeletons include crustaceans such as lobsters and crabs and insects such as cockroaches and grasshoppers. This picture fits the definition because these lobsters have exoskeletons.
17. Enzyme
An enzyme is a large molecule produced by organisms that serves as a catalyst to speed up many metabolic reactions that sustain life. Some of these biochemical reactions include the digestion process and the synthesis of DNA. Enzymes are usually proteins and have a three-dimensional structure. This picture fits the definition because milk contains the enzyme lactase which ensures that the milk is digested properly.
18. Cambium
Cambium is a cellular plant tissue that provides undifferentiated cells, utilized for plant growth. Its parallel rows of cells result in secondary tissue and in woody plants, secondary thickening. This picture fits the definition because it depicts a tree section. Inside of the tree section, cambium acts as a highway to transport water and nutrients throughout the tree.
19. Ethylene
Ethylene is a naturally created horomone of the alkaline series. Although it is a flammable hydrocarbon, it also assists the ripening process of many fruit, including tomatoes. Therefore, this picture of a ripe tomato is an example of ethylene in action.
20. Keratin
Keratin is a fibrous structural protein that makes up the outer layer of human skin, and is a key component in the makeup of hair, nails, hoofs, horns, claws, feathers, etc. Monomers of keratin form intermediate filaments, which are durable and insoluble and make up strong tissues found in reptiles, birds, mammals, and amphibians. This picture fits the definition because keratin is the main protein that makes up hair, and keeps my hair strong.
21. Parasite
A parasite is an organism that forms a non-mutual symbiotic relationship with its host, by living on or in it and feeding off of the host's nutrients at their expense. This picture fits the definition because my sister is an example of a parasite, me being her host. She steals things and benefits at my expense, and is thus a parasite. (just kidding, here is a real parasite). This horse spray defends them from flies, who are parasites of the horses and benefit at the horses's expense.
22. Eukaryote
A eukaryote is an organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other organelles encompassed by membranes. Their genetic material, DNA formed in chromosomes, is also contained in the distinct nucleus. Eukaryotes include all living organisms excluding bacteria and archaea. This picture fits the definition because my beautiful dog, Miley, has eukaryotic cells.
23. Prokaryote
A prokaryote is a single-celled organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus and other specialized organelles. They include two major classification domains of life: bacteria and archaea. This picture thus fits the definition because i drew a bacteria cell.
24. Pollen
Normally yellow, pollen is a powdery substance that is made up of microscopic grains discharged from the male part of a flower. Each grain contains a male gamete that is able to fertilize the female ovule. This picture fits the definition because the yellow inner part of this flower is a prime example of pollen.
25. Mutualism
Mutualism is a symbiotic relationship that is beneficial to both parties. When two organisms of different species partake in a relationship in which they both gain something from the bond, mutualism is occurring. This picture fits the definition because the butterfly gets pollen from the flower, providing its sustenance. The butterfly then helps to spread the pollen of the one flower to other flowers, pollinating them in the process and helping them reproduce. Thus, both parties benefit and this example of symbiosis is mutualism.
26. Spores
A spore is a small, usually one-celled, asexual reproductive unit. It has the ability to crate new life without sexual intercourse and is commonly found in plants, fungi, and protozoans. This picture fits the definition because fungi are a very common example of spores and they reproduce through these spores.
27. Myosin
Myosin is a fibrous protein that is known for its role in both muscle contraction and other eukaryotic motility processes. Combined with actin, this compound forms the filaments of muscle cells and is involved in the motion in other types of cells. This picture fits the definition because it depicts my friend, Casie, using myosin to contract her leg muscles.
28. Pine Cone
A pine cone is the rounded organ/fruit of pine trees with scales that open to release seeds. Clearly, the pine cone is used to reproduce and create new trees. This picture fits this definition because I am holding a pine cone itself.
29. Protostome
A protostome is a clade of animals, specifically multi-cellular organisms whose mouths develop from a primary embroyonic opening, like an athropod, annelid, or mollusk. This picture fits the definition because these oysters are a type of mollusk and thus are classified as a protostome.
30. Lignin
Lignin is a complex polymer, most commonly derived from wood but found in the cell walls of many plants. This abundant organic polymer (trailing only cellulose) makes plants rigid and woody. This picture fits the definition because lignin is in all vascular plants, and these flowers are vascular. Thus, they contain lignin.
31. Commensalism
Commensalism is a symbiotic relationships between two organisms in which one benefits and the other is indifferent to the partnership because they neither benefit nor are harmed. This picture fits the definition because hermit crabs find snail shells and overtake them as their permanent shelter. However, the snails are already dead when the crabs steal the shells; thus, the crabs benefit while the snails remain unaffected.
32. Phloem
Phloem are a type of vascular tissue found in many plants that carries sugars and other products from the leaves to the roots. This picture fits the definition because the phloem in this tree transport sugars and more throughout the tree.
33. Gastropod
The Gastropods, more commonly referred to as slugs, snails, and whelks, are a large class within the phylum Mollusca. This class includes slugs and snails of all shapes, sizes, and species, despite it being sea, land, or freshwater. This picture fits the definition because these sea snails are examples of gastropods.
Taken: July 26
Taken: July 26
Tracey, the huge bug that I watched get run over. (if you'd like to see the after picture i have one, but it's pretty brutal)
Taken: July 27
34. Deciduous Leaf
36. Glycogen
38. Actin
37. Haploid
39. Frond
A frond is typically a large, divided leaf. Pertaining specifically to ferns and some palms, fronds (according to some) refer only to the leaves of ferns. This picture fits the definition because this plant is a frond with large divided leaves.
40. Rhizome
Also known as creeping rootstalks, rhizomes are rootlike subterranean stems of plants, typically found underground and often send out roots and shoots from its roots. This picture fits the definition because this root is a ginger rhizome, featuring my friend Casie.
41. Lichen
Lichen is a basic slow-evolvingsim plant that usually forms a low crustlike, leaflike, or branching growth on rocks, walls, and trees. This picture fits the definition because this growth is an example of leaflike lichen growing on walls.
42. Xerophyte
A xerophyte is a species of plant that requires very little to survive and is typically found in desert or icy region. They require such small amounts of water because they are designed to conserve and hold large quantities of water. This picture fits the definition because cacti are the prime example of a xerophyte. They are commonly found in the desert and do not require a lot of water to survive.
43. Xylem
A xylem is one of the transport vascular tissues in plants. Its main function is to carry water and nutrients throughout the plant but also helps to form the woody part of the stem. This picture fits the definition because this tree has xylem which carry water and nutrients throughout it, from the roots to the leaves.
44. Ectotherm
An ecotherm is an animal that survives on heat provided by an external source because they are unable to produce any themselves. For example, this chameleon is a cold blooded ectothermic reptile because it requires external heat to survive.
45.
Epithelial tissue
Epithelial tissue is a protective tissue that covers the entire human body and is made up of many cells that are packed together tightly. Since this tissue has no blood vessels itself, it relies on underlying tissue to prodive its sustenance. This picture fits the definition because the skin of my arm is epithelial tissue.
46. Heartwood
Heartwood is the dense, inner part of a tree trunk thats timber is the firmest. This picture fits the definition of heartwood because the inner part of this trunk has heartwood and is thus the hardest part of the tree.
47. Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera is a large group of insects including moths and butterflies. Having over 150,000 species, lepidoptera is one of the most diverse and widespread insect orders in the world. This picture fits the definition because this butterfly (if real) would be the perfect example of lepidoptera.
48. Porifera
Porifera is a phylum of sponges, which are multicellular organisms with bodies that are covered in pores and channels. These openings allow water to circulate through them and they lack digestive, nervous, and circulatory systems. This picture fits the definition because Spongebob is the prime example of a sea sponge.
49. Pteridophyte
Pteridophytes are a group of vascular plants that reproduce from spores. Including ferns, spikemosses, and quillworts, they do not produce seeds or flowers and are thus called cryptogams. This picture fits the definition because this is a type of moss that reproduces from spores, and therefore is a pteridophyte.
50. Echinoderm
An echinoderm is a phylum of marine invertebrate. They are found at every ocean depth and include sea cucumbers, sand dollars, starfish, and sea urchin. This picture fits the definition because it is a sand dollar, and sand dollars are a prime example of echinoderms.
A deciduous leaf is of a tree that loses its leaves seasonally (usually in the fall). Examples of tree types that are deciduous inclue oak, maple, aspen, birch, and elm. The trees lose their leaves because during the colder months, it becomes much harder to provide enough water for the leaves to grow properly. Thus, rather than allowing the leaves to die after a struggle, it just enters a dormant period rather than actively growing. This picture fits the definition because this tree has leaves that fall off in the winter, thus making it a deciduous tree with deciduous leaves.
Conifers are gymnosperms, a plant that reproduces through putting their seeds in cones. They are woody plants, including pines, cedars, redwoods, cypresses, and more. Because most conifers are evergreens (meaning they shed their leaves continuously), their leaves are often more needle-like and long and thin. However, some have flat, triangular leaves. This picture fits the definition because these are conifer leaves from a pine tree.
35. Conifer Leaf
corn is an example of angiosperm. Because it is a monoecious plant that is in the grass family Poaceae and has separate male and female flowers on the same plant. The tassel at the top is the staminate flower while the ear with protruding silks is the pistillate flower. Thus corn, since it produces flowers, is an angiosperm.
Actin is a globular protein that is found in muscle plasma of eukaryotic cells and that combined with myosin plays an major role in muscle contraction. This picture fits the definition it is me, using actin and myosin, to contract my arm muscles. (impressive, i know). Without this protein, this action would be impossible. Go Actin!
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Taken: July 13

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Taken: July 26
Since adaptation of an animal refers to it's skill of self-preservation in an always-changing environment, this picture fits this definition because the parakeets depicted have done so in order to survive. Just as the adaption of an animal describes its traits that have enabled it to evolve along with its environment, this picture too shows this function because parakeets, who are used to living in warmer climates like India, have learned to adapt in the UK.
Taken: August 5
This picture fits the definition because these flowers undergo the Calvin cycle within their chloroplasts to thrive. (Taken: August 15)
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Glycogen is a polysaccharide of glucose that constitues the main storage of energy in animals and fungi. In humans, glycogen is created and stored in the liver cells and other muscles. This picture fits the definition because glycogen is the main storage of energy in this adorable cat.
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A haploid pertains to an organism or cell having only one entire set of chromosomes, each one being alone/not part of a pair. Gametes are a prime example of haploid cells. Thus, this picture fits the definition because sperm is the most common example of haploid cells. (Yes, im the artist)
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