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Planets

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Cito Park

on 14 January 2014

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Transcript of Planets

The Planets
Venus
It's close to Earth's size (radius of 6,051.8 km)
The core is probably partially molten, and composed of similar materials as Earth
Its atmosphere is extremely thick, and is composed of sulfuric acid, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen
This causes its temperature to soar to 462 °C
A day on Venus is 5832.4 hours, due to its retrograde motion
Earth
It is 1 AU away from the Sun and has a radius of 6,371 km
The inner core is solid and the outer core is liquid, and both are made of iron
The mantle is the thickest layer, comprised of thick, hot, and dense rock
The crust is three-quarters oxygen
Its atmosphere is mainly nitrogen and oxygen
It is the only planet that we know which has life
Jupiter
By Khari, Lauren, and Lawrence
The Solar System
Consists of all bodies orbiting or gravitationally influenced by the Sun
Includes the Sun, planets, moons, dwarf planets, asteroids, and other minor bodies
Origins
Formation of the Sun
The center of the cloud began to spin rapidly and heat up
Eventually, temperature and pressure became high enough to sustain nuclear fusion
The newly formed star emitted a strong solar wind, forcing materials in the orbiting disk outwards
Formation of the planets
Each planet began as a speck of dust
Through direct collisions the speck accumulated mass, forming a planetoid
The planetoids were gravitationally attracted to each other, forming planets
Early on, the planets migrated frequently, leading to major collisions and possibly ejection from the solar system
The Terrestrial Planets
Because they were closer to the Sun, they were also hotter
This did not allow for the condensation of lighter substances such as water and ammonia
As a result, the inner planets are rocky, solid, and metallic
The inner, or terrestrial, planets, include Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars
Formation of the Solar System
4.6 billion years ago, a molecular gaseous cloud such as this one collapsed upon itself
The cloud formed a solar nebula, consisting of disk of dust and gas orbiting around a central point
The Jovian Planets
Because they were farther away from the Sun, they were also colder
This allowed for the condensation of lighter substances such as water and ammonia
This allowed for a greater planetary mass
The masses of the outer planets reached a critical point where they could attract gases
As a result, the outer planets are largely made of gases such as hydrogen (the most common element)
The outer planets, also known as the gas giants or the Jovian planets, are Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune
Mercury
Mars
Saturn
Uranus
Neptune
Pluto
Is 9.5AU from the sun, its radius is 60,268km at its eaquator
Weighs the same as 95.16 Earths
Is 827'130 megametres cubed
A day lasts 11 hours, a year lasts 10,755 days
Has 62 moons, including Titan, Mimas, and Enceladus
Saturn is 96% hydrogen (H2), 3.25% Helium
Rings span 282'000km
Is being explored extensively by the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft
Average temperature is -178°C
Vital Facts

Classification: Dwarf Planet
Composition: 50-70% rock, 30-50% ice
Moons: 5, Charon being the largest
Average distance from Sun: 39.26 AU
Orbital period: 248 Earth years
Radius: 1,161 km (0.18 Earths)
Average surface temperature: -229 degrees Celsius
Atmosphere: Very thin, composed of nitrogen, methane, and carbon dioxide
It's 1.52AU away from the sun, and has a radius of 3396.2km at its equator
It is the planet in the solar system most suited to life (aside from Earth)
It has some of the most extreme geographic features of any planet
Is currently being explored by Curiosity and Opportunity
It has an Iron/sulfur core and a silicate mantle
Its moons are Deimos and Phobos
1 day is 25 hours, a full orbit is 687 Earth days
The average surface temperature is -63°C
The atmosphere is 95.32% carbon dioxide
19 AU from the sun, radius is 25,559km at equator
Weighs the same as 14.54 Earths
Uranus has an axial tilt of 98 degrees
A day is 17 hours long, and a year lasts 30,630 days
The temperature is at least -224°C
Has 27 moons, the biggest is Titania
Is 82% hydrogen (H2), 15.2% Helium, and 2.3% methane
Is 5.2 AU from the sun, and has a radius of 69,911km
It is 1/1000th of the mass of the Sun, but is 2.5 times more massive than all other planets combined
Its most famous feature is the Great Red Spot, a massive cyclone
Jupiter is 75% hydrogen, 25% helium
It has 67 moons, including Ganymede, Europa, Io, and Callisto
Orbital period: 4,332 Earth days
Average surface temperature: -108 degrees Celsius
We do not know much about Pluto, due to its great distance from Earth
Its moon, Charon, is about half its size
It will be visited by the New Horizons spacecraft in 2015
Is Pluto a planet?

From its discovery in 1930 to 2006, Pluto was considered a planet
In 2003, the dwarf planet Eris was discovered
It was more massive than Pluto, calling into question Pluto's planet status
In 2006, four criteria for planetary status were determined, excluding Pluto
Pluto is now a dwarf planet
A planet is any body which:

a) is in orbit around the Sun
b) has sufficient mass to achieve a nearly spherical shape
c) has cleared the neighborhood around its orbit
d) is not a satellite
Asteroid Belt
Located between Mars and Jupiter
Consists of asteroids and minor planets
Half of its mass is contained in its four largest asteroids - Ceres, Vesta, Pallas, and Hygiea
It was unable to form a planet due to Jupiter's gravitational influence
Kuiper Belt
Consists of rocky bodies like the asteroid belt
Lies beyond Neptune
It is 20 times wider and 20-200 times as massive as the asteroid belt
Pluto and Eris are its largest objects
Exoplanets
Exoplanets are planets outside the solar system
So far, over 1,000 have been discovered, and over 3,000 are candidates
Many of these are "hot Jupiters", massive gaseous planets which orbit very close to their star
This makes them easier to detect
A few may be Earth-like
Exoplanet Detection

Exoplanets, until very recently, could not be directly photographed
When exoplanets move in front of their own star, they block a fraction of its light
Similarly, exoplanets also gravitationally influence their stars
The effect is very small, but detectable
It is about 57,909,227 km away and has a radius of 2,439.7 km
Its temperature varies from -173 to 427 °C
The inner core is liquid metal with a high iron content, making up 42% of the planet
It is thought that a planetesimal impacted Mercury, stripping away its crust and mantle
It has a thin atmosphere of hydrogen, helium, and oxygen
One Mercury day is 1407.5 hours
Mercury was visited by Mariner 10, MESSENGER, and BepiColombo
30 AU from the sun, radius is 24,764km at equator
Weighs the same as 17.15 Earths
14 moons, biggest is Triton
Atmosphere is 80% hydrogen, 19% helium, and 2.3% methane
Neptune has a cyclone called the Great Blue Spot
A day last 16 hours, a year lasts 60,189 days
The average temperature is 214°C
References
Cain, Fraser. "What Color is Venus?." Universe Today RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2014. <http://www.universetoday.com/46436/what-color-is-venus/>.

Cain, Fraser . "What is Mercury Made Of?." Universe Today RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Jan. 2014. <http://www.universetoday.com/34021/what-is-mercury-made-of/>.

Coffey, Jerry. "What is Mars Made Of?." Universe Today RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Jan. 2014. <http://www.universetoday.com/14702/what-is-mars-made-of/>.

NASA. "Solar System Exploration: Planets: Mercury: Overview." Solar System Exploration: Planets: Mercury: Overview. NASA, n.d. Web. 12 Jan. 2014. <http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=Mercury>.

NASA. "Solar System Exploration: Planets: Kuiper Belt & Oort Cloud: Overview." Solar System Exploration: Planets: Kuiper Belt & Oort Cloud: Overview. NASA, n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2014. <http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=KBOs>.

NASA. "Solar System Exploration: Planets: Venus: Overview." Solar System Exploration: Planets: Venus: Overview. NASA, n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2014. <http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=Venus>.

NASA. "Solar System Exploration: Planets: Asteroids: Overview." Solar System Exploration: Planets: Asteroids: Overview. NASA, n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2014. <http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=Asteroids>.

"Solar System Exploration: Planets: Earth: Overview." Solar System Exploration: Planets: Earth: Overview. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Jan. 2014. <http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=Earth>.
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