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Copy of Chapter 34: Dairy
Transcript of Copy of Chapter 34: Dairy
Dairy foods are a part of a healthful diet. They are rich in:
vitamin B 12
Fortified milk is an
of Vitamin D. Health experts recommend 3 cups of dairy foods a day.
One cup equals:
1 cup of milk or yogurt
1 ½ oz. natural cheese
2 oz. of processed cheese. Pasteurization:
a heat treatment for milk to kill
enzymes and any harmful bacteria.
According to federal law, all milk must be pasteurized
Pasteurization improves the quality of milk while not changing flavor or nutritional value.
As a result, it becomes a shelf –stable product that can be sold in aseptic containers. Raw Milk
Milk that is not pasteurized - may
contain harmful bacteria Nonfat milk solids
Fresh milk from the cow are:
87 % water
13 % milk solids. These contain most of the protein, vitamins, minerals, and lactose (milk sugar) Homogenized
Other solids are milk fat
They separate out of the liquid because it is lighter than other milk fluids and solids and rise to the top as cream.
Homogenization breaks down fat and distributes it evenly in the milk. FDA Standards
If milk meets these standards, it is labeled “Grade A” the highest quality.
Only Grade A Pastuerized milk can be shipped between states for retail sale. Types of Milk
Whole Milk: Highest amount of fat. By law, it must have 3.25 percent fat or more.
Reduced Fat Milk: Contains 2% fat
Low-fat Milk: Contains either 2% or 1% fat
Nonfat Milk: Contains less than ½ % fat. Also called fat-free or skim milk
Buttermilk: Tangy flavor and smooth thick texture. Despite its name, it isn’t high in fat. Originally, it was the milk left after making butter. Today, special bacteria are added to pasteurized nonfat milk to product the flavor and texture. Sometimes flecks of butter are added for flavor and visual appeal. Used in cooking and baking as well as for drinking.
Kefir: Fermented milk with a slightly sour flavor, the authentic Middle Eastern product is made of fermented camel’s milk. In U.S.
Chocolate Milk: Has chocolate or cocoa and sweetener added.
Nonfat Dry Milk: Powdered form of nonfat milk made by removing the fat and water from pasteurized milk. When rehydrated, dry milk is used like fresh milk and must be refrigerated. Dry milk may be added directly to recipes to increase nutrient value without adding fat. Although convenient and inexpensive, taste differs slightly from fresh.
Evaporated Milk: Canned, whole or non-fat , containing only half the water in regular milk. Can be used as a cream substitute in beverages.
Sweetened Condensed Milk: Concentrated form of milk with sweetener added; used to make candy and desserts. This product cannot be substituted for evaporated milk or diluted to use as regular milk.
Lactose-free or Reduced-lactose Milk: Treated to break down lactose for those who are lactose intolerant.
Acidophilus Milk: Bacteria that aids digestion.
Calcium-enriched milk: contains 500 mg. of calc Cream Butter Yogurt
Ripened Cheese Nonfat Dairy Substitutes Buying Dairy Products Storing Dairy Products Serving Dairy Products
Cold: Fresh Cheeses
Room Temperature: aged/ripened cheeses
Cooking with Cheese Kinds of Milk •Half and Half: Homogenized mixture of milk and cream with 10 1/2 to 18 % milk fat. It is often used in coffee and other beverages
•Light, coffee, or table cream: Contains 18 to 30 % milk fat. Besides use as a table cream, it is also used as a cooking ingredient.
•Light whipping cream: Has 30 to 36 % milk fat. It is used in desserts.
•Heavy whipping cream: Contains over 36 % milk fat. This cream whips easily and is frequently used in desserts.
•Sour cream: Contains 18% milk fat. Thick and rich with tangy flavor. Made by adding lactic acid bacteria to light cream. Available in lowfat and nonfat products. Often used as a topping on baked potatoes. Many recipes call for sour cream as an ingredient. •Made in Large wooden churns in colonial times. Mechanical means today separate fat from the liquid. Federal standard require 80% milk fat. Buttermilk is left. Salt and coloring is left.
•Graded for quality by the USDA . Grade AA is superior quality. Grade A quality is good quality. Grade B is made from cream that has soured and has a pleasing flavor.
•Butter comes in salted or unsalted.
•Commonly comes in sticks usually 4 to a 1 pound package
•Whipped butter is soft and spreadable. Not recommended for baking because added air changes the density. Made by adding special harmless bacteria to milk. The result is a thick, creamy product that is like custard and has a tangy flavor.
Acidophilus Bacteria added is believed to help keep the digestive system healthy.
It can be eaten straight, combined with foods in dishes and in cooking.
Contains similar nutrients to milk. Because it is concentrated it has more nutrients than a similar amount of milk. ! cup nonfat yogurt has 452 mg calcium ; 1 cup milk contains 300 mg.
Plain yogurt has no flavorings added. Flavored yogurt contains added sugar or sugar substitutes and artificial flavors or real fruits.
One cup of yogurt contains 120-250 calories depending on the fat content of the milk used in production. Added sweeteners also affect the calories. Check the label for calories and fat.
• Ice cream- A whipped mixture of cream, milk, sugar, flavorings, and stabilizers. It must contain at least 10% milk fat. French ice cream has egg yolk solids added. In addition to regular ice cream, you can buy low-fat, nonfat, and n-sugar-added versions
• Frozen Yogurt- Varies in fat content depending on the yogurt and other ingredients used to produce it. Freezing destroys the most beneficial bacteria.
• Sherbet- Made from fruit or juice, sugar, water, flavorings and milk fat. It generally has less fat but more sugar than ice cream.
• Sorbet- French word for sherbet. Sorbet is made without milk. Frozen Dairy Desserts Cheese is a concentrated form of milk.
When an enzyme (rennin) is added to milk, the milk thickens and separates into solid clusters called curds, and a thin bluish liquid called whey.
The curds are drained from the whey and it is made into cheese.
Most cheeses are made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep. U.S. usually uses Cow Milk.
Cheese is separated into two categories, fresh or unripened, and aged or ripened.
Low-fat and nonfat types are often available. Cheese Fresh Cheese •Fresh cheese has not ripened or aged.
•It is made from pasteurized milk and has a mild flavor.
•It is highly perishable, must be refrigerated and used within a few days.
•You can snack on fresh cheese or use it in salads, sandwiches, and cooking
Cottage cheese, farmers cheese and ricotta • Also called Aged
• Made by adding ripening agents such as bacteria, mold, yeast or a combination of these to the curds. It is then aged under carefully controlled conditions.
• Aging depends on the kind of cheese. Ripened cheese can be stored much longer than fresh.
• Hundreds of ripened cheeses are available, each with a distinctive flavor and texture. They are grouped according to the following textures:
• Specialty cheeses are made by shredding and blending different ripened cheeses. Sometimes foods are added (pimientos, pineabpples, olives or other foods). Specialty cheeses spread easily and melt quickly. They include:
Pasteurized processed (American) Dairy Substitutes When you are allergic to the protein in milk or prefer foods that are free of saturated fats and cholesterol dairy substitutes provide options:
•Margarine – made from hydrogenated vegetable oils and sold in sticks similar to butter. Some margarines have no trans-fats and reduced fat and fat-free alternatives.
•Soy Milk –The liquid pressed out of soybeans. High in protein, B vitamins and iron. Low in calcium, fat, and sodium. Contains no cholesterol. Choose a brand fortified with calcium, vitamins A, D, and B 12
•Soy Cheese – Made from soy milk. Low-fat and no-fat types available.
•Nondairy Creamer – made with partially hydrogenated vegetable oil and corn syrup. It comes as a powder or a liquid
•Whipped toppings – made from hydrogenated vegetable oils, sweeteners, and nonfat milk solids. You can choose from dry mixes, aerosol cans, or frozen tubs.
•Frozen desserts – Nondairy ice cream made with cooked rice or tofu. READ LABELS CAREFULLY. Products may contain saturated fats, such as coconut or palm oils which contain trans-fats. •Consider fat amounts, container size, and product type.
•Rich foods generally cost more than low fat alternatives.
•Large containers are generally a better buy than small ones
•Foods with added ingredients generally cost more than their plain counterparts
•Always check labels for nutrition and ingredient information.
•Containers should be tightly sealed and never opened.
•Only buy quantities that you can use in a relatively short time. Most dairy products must be used in a few days, although butter, yogurt , ripened cheese, and frozen desserts last longer when properly stored. •Dairy foods are highly perishable.
•Store properly immediately after purchase. It is best to refrigerate all dairy foods in original containers. Make sure they are closed tightly to prevent them from picking up odors from the refrigerator.
•Return all dairy foods to the refrigerator after using them. If milk has been sitting out in a pitcher don’t pour it back into the original container.
•If milk has been out at room temperature for more than two hours DISCARD IT!
•Store milk away from light since light destroys riboflavin.
•Wrap ripened cheese tightly so it doesn’t dry out.
•Firm and semi soft cheeses can be frozen, but the texture changes. Freeze in ½ lb portions and use it crumbled, shredded, or cooked in dishes.
oYou can refrigerate for several weeks
o freeze it for up to 9 months
•Store frozen dairy desserts in covered containers in the freezer. Cooking with Milk Products
Milk is sensitive to heat because it contains animal proteins. Cook at moderate temperatures for as short a time as possible.
Heat turns milk solids into a tough rubbery skins that forms on the surface. This skin keeps heat from escaping. Pressure builds until the milk eventually boils over. To prevent the skin from forming, cover the pan or stir the milk continuously as it cooks. If a skin does form, beat it vigorously into the milk. If you discard this you are throwing away valuable nutrients.
Problems that can occur:
•Scorching: occurs when milk overheats. When you heat milk, some solids settle on the bottom and form on the sides. Overheating caramelizes the sugar lactose in the solids and they rapidly burn or scorch.
•Curdling: When you heat milk at temperatures that are too high it separates into curds and whey. It can also occur when you add milk to hot foods such as gravy or acidic foods such as tomato soup.
oTempering prevents curdling by bringing one food to the right temperature or consistency before mixing it completely with the other.
•Scalded Milk: called for by some recipes. Heat milk just to below boiling. Use low heat and cook only until bubbles appear around the sides of the pan. Whipping Cream
You should use heavy cream with a high fat content.
Whipping creates a foam when air is incorporated and at the same time beating breaks down the protein which then forms a fine film around pockets of air.
This protein structure holds the air pockets and gives strength, or stability to the foam
Fat in cream adds rigidity.
Don’t overbeat or it will become butter.
Add any other ingredients at the end of whipping to avoid reducing the volume and overbeating.
Use guidelines for cooking with milk when using cream. Take care when using in recipes since the higher fat content is more sensitive to acidity and heat. Cooking with Yogurt
Works well as a low-fat substitute for sour cream, cream cheese, and mayonnaise.
Making Frozen Dairy Desserts
• Ice cream: Stirring action prevents ice crystals making the mixture light and airy
Mousse: Soft, Creamy dish made with whipped cream and flavored often with chocolate or fruit.
Sometimes gelatin adds body and helps keep the
mixture’s shape. It is a highly concentrated food, high in protein and fat, so cook with care. If you cook cheese for too long or use a temperature that’s too high, the cheese becomes tough and rubbery.
If fat separates into globules of grease, food will have an unappetizing appearance.
Cheese should be cooked just until it melts. To reduce cooking time, cut cheese into small pieces or grate it. If you want to melt it alone, use a double boiler.
When you combine with other foods in a casserole, they should be precooked to reduce cooking time with cheese. Cheese on a casserole adds crunch and flavor and protects the cheese underneath from too much heat.
Some blend more readily into a recipe than others, ripened cheeses blend well. Fresh cheeses don’t blend well unless beaten into the mixture.
Be careful when microwaving food with cheese, as the cheese may be hotter than other foods in the recipe. Cooking With Cheese