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Victorian Poetry

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Alex Chapman

on 6 March 2013

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Transcript of Victorian Poetry

Robert Browning Alfred, Lord Tennyson Matthew Arnold Robert Browning was born on May 7, 1812, in Camberwell, England. His father had a volume of 6,000 books and he educated Robert. By age five, he was reading and writing very well. He enrolled at the University of London in 1828, but soon left to learn at his own pace. He published his first poem, “Pauline” in 1833. He tried to write plays but he failed at that. He read Elizabeth Barrett’s, “Poems” in 1845 and met her then and they married a couple months later. She died in 1861. After her death Robert, and Pen, their son, moved back to England. Robert was awarded honorary degrees by Oxford University in 1882 and the University of Edinburgh in 1884. He died in 1889. He was born August 6, 1809 the fourth child of George and Elizabeth Tennyson. In 1827 he followed his two older brothers to Trinity College aka Cambridge. While there his tutor was William Whewell. His best friend Arthur Hallam died unexpectedly in 1833, and after, inspired some of Tennyson’s greatest works. Tennyson, sensitive to criticism, quit publishing poems for nine years after the critic, John Wilson Croker harshly reviewed his works and poems. The success of his poem, “Poems” earned him $200 a week government pension. Tennyson suffered from extreme short-sightedness which challenged him as he grew older. He died October 6, 1892 at the age of 83. He was born in 1822. He began his journey to poetry by attending the rugby school in which his father was headmaster. He went to Oxford for his undergraduate degree. In 1851 he became a government school inspector with which he got to travel the country. He started writing poetry and in 1857 he was offered a job as the Professor of Poetry at Oxford, which he accepted and worked until 1867. Arnold wrote based on the belief for a renewed religious faith and an adoption of classical ways of life and morals. In 1883 and 1886 he made two lecturing tours in the United States. He died in Liverpool in 1888. Victorian Poetry Alex Chapman Dover Beach The sea is calm to-night.
The tide is full, the moon lies fair
Upon the straits; on the French coast the light
Gleams and is gone; the cliffs of England stand;
Glimmering and vast, out in the tranquil bay.
Come to the window, sweet is the night-air!
Only, from the long line of spray
Where the sea meets the moon-blanched land,
Listen! you hear the grating roar
Of pebbles which the waves draw back, and fling,
At their return, up the high strand,
Begin, and cease, and then again begin,
With tremulous cadence slow, and bring
The eternal note of sadness in.
Sophocles long ago
Heard it on the A gaean, and it brought
Into his mind the turbid ebb and flow
Of human misery; we
Find also in the sound a thought,
Hearing it by this distant northern sea.
The Sea of Faith
Was once, too, at the full, and round earth's shore
Lay like the folds of a bright girdle furled.
But now I only hear
Its melancholy, long, withdrawing roar,
Retreating, to the breath
Of the night-wind, down the vast edges drear
And naked shingles of the world.
Ah, love, let us be true
To one another! for the world, which seems
To lie before us like a land of dreams,
So various, so beautiful, so new,
Hath really neither joy, nor love, nor light,
Nor certitude, nor peace, nor help for pain;
And we are here as on a darkling plain
Swept with confused alarms of struggle and flight,
Where ignorant armies clash by night. Summary It is a person discussing his old views on life and changing into his new views on life.
He talks about religion and refers to it as “The Sea Of Faith”. He says it was “once, too, at the full” which could mean he lost faith in his religion.
This poems theme is saying you need to spend less time looking at the negative things in life because it will prevent you from being happy.
This poem is Victorian because it shows the decrease in the belief of religion and the poet is trying to make us think about religion the way he views it. A Dream Was it a dream? We sail'd, I thought we sail'd,
Martin and I, down a green Alpine stream,
Border'd, each bank, with pines; the morning sun,
On the wet umbrage of their glossy tops,
On the red pinings of their forest-floor,
Drew a warm scent abroad; behind the pines
The mountain-skirts, with all their sylvan change
Of bright-leaf'd chestnuts and moss'd walnut-trees
And the frail scarlet-berried ash, began.
Swiss chalets glitter'd on the dewy slopes,
And from some swarded shelf, high up, there came
Notes of wild pastoral music--over all
Ranged, diamond-bright, the eternal wall of snow.
Upon the mossy rocks at the stream's edge,
Back'd by the pines, a plank-built cottage stood,
Bright in the sun; the climbing gourd-plant's leaves
Muffled its walls, and on the stone-strewn roof
Lay the warm golden gourds; golden, within,
Under the eaves, peer'd rows of Indian corn.
We shot beneath the cottage with the stream.
On the brown, rude-carved balcony, two forms
Came forth--Olivia's, Marguerite! and thine.
Clad were they both in white, flowers in their breast;
Straw hats bedeck'd their heads, with ribbons blue,
Which danced, and on their shoulders, fluttering, play'd.
They saw us, they conferr'd; their bosoms heaved,
And more than mortal impulse fill'd their eyes.
Their lips moved; their white arms, waved eagerly,
Flash'd once, like falling streams; we rose, we gazed.
One moment, on the rapid's top, our boat
Hung poised--and then the darting river of Life
(Such now, methought, it was), the river of Life,
Loud thundering, bore us by; swift, swift it foam'd,
Black under cliffs it raced, round headlands shone.
Soon the plank'd cottage by the sun-warm'd pines
Faded--the moss--the rocks; us burning plains,
Bristled with cities, us the sea received. Summary Two people, Martin and the speaker, are sailing down a river known as the Alpine Stream.
They are observing their surroundings very intensely.
They hear music and come across a cottage where two girls, Marguerite and Olivia, are standing outside waving at them.
The two guys watch them and quickly forget what’s going on because they are too busy observing the girls.
Then they hit rapids in the water which quickly sends them on their way and they end up out at sea.
The theme is saying not to get too caught up in just one thing because you will lose track of what is happening around you.
This poem could be talking about religion, and that would make it Victorian, because the poem is trying to tell you not to get to caught up in one thing or else you can’t enjoy the other parts of life. Bibliography Robert Browning

•"Robert Browning." Two Poems by. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2013. <http://unix.cc.wmich.edu/~cooneys/poems/Browning.two.html>.

•"Robert Browning." - Poets.org. The American Academy of Poets, n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2013. <http://www.poets.org/poet.php/prmPID/182>. Matthew Arnold

•"Matthew Arnold." - Poets.org. The American Academy of Poets, n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2013. <http://www.poets.org/poet.php/prmPID/88>.

•""Dover Beach" by Matthew Arnold." "Dover Beach" by Matthew Arnold. Victorian Web, n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2013. <http://www.victorianweb.org/authors/arnold/writings/doverbeach.html>.
•"A Dream." Matthew Arnold's Poem:. Read Books Online, n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2013. <http://www.readbookonline.net/readOnLine/12115/>. Alfred, Lord Tennyson

•Everett, Glenn. "Alfred Lord Tennyson: A Brief Biography." Alfred Lord Tennyson: A Brief Biography. Victorian Web, 30 Nov. 2004. Web. 22 Feb. 2013. <http://www.victorianweb.org/authors/tennyson/tennybio.html>.

•"A Farewell." Poemhunter.com. PoemHunter, 1 Jan. 2004. Web. 24 Feb. 2013. <http://www.poemhunter.com/poem/a-farewell/>."Litscape.com."
• All Things Will Die. LitScape, n.d. Web. 22 Feb. 2013. <http://www.litscape.com/author/Alfred_Lord_Tennyson/All_Things_Will_Die.html>. Picture

•Summers, Jodi. "Jodi Summers = Santa Monica Real Estate." Sothebys Internet Reality. Santa Monica Property Blog, 29 June 2011. Web. 22 Feb. 2013. <http://www.santamonicapropertyblog.com/?category_name=water>. A Farewell
Flow down, cold rivulet, to the sea,
Thy tribute wave deliver:
No more by thee my steps shall be,
For ever and for ever.

Flow, softly flow, by lawn and lea,
A rivulet then a river:
Nowhere by thee my steps shall be
For ever and for ever.

But here will sigh thine alder tree
And here thine aspen shiver;
And here by thee will hum the bee,
For ever and for ever.

A thousand suns will stream on thee,
A thousand moons will quiver;
But not by thee my steps shall be,
For ever and for ever. A Farewell Summary A Farewell is talking about how the speaker will no longer walk by this cold rivulet, because of the endurance of nature versus that of man.
People will ultimately meet their end as nature will live on forever and ever.
It also talks about how life will continue after he is gone and new things will continue to grow and live.
The theme of this poem is nature will always outlive man, so man should live as best he can.
Its Victorian because it shows an interest in the occult and mysterious.
Mother Nature is mysterious and will live on when man dies. Clearly the blue river chimes in its flowing

Under my eye;
Warmly and broadly the south winds are blowing

Over the sky.
One after another the white clouds are fleeting;
Every heart this May morning in joyance is beating

Full merrily;
Yet all things must die.
The stream will cease to flow;
The wind will cease to blow;
The clouds will cease to fleet;
The heart will cease to beat;
For all things must die.
All things must die.
Spring will come never more.
O, vanity!
Death waits at the door.
See! our friends are all forsaking
The wine and the merrymaking.
We are call’d–we must go.
Laid low, very low,
In the dark we must lie.
The merry glees are still;
The voice of the bird
Shall no more be heard,
Nor the wind on the hill.
O, misery!
Hark! death is calling
While I speak to ye,
The jaw is falling,
The red cheek paling,
The strong limbs failing;
Ice with the warm blood mixing;
The eyeballs fixing.
Nine times goes the passing bell:
Ye merry souls, farewell.
The old earth
Had a birth,
As all men know,
Long ago.
And the old earth must die.
So let the warm winds range,
And the blue wave beat the shore;
For even and morn
Ye will never see
Thro’ eternity.
All things were born.
Ye will come never more,
For all things must die. All Things Will Die Summary This poem tells us that everything must die because we are not going to live forever.
Even the Earth is not going to live forever. It talks about the sounds and the sights we will no longer see or hear when we die.
The theme is you need to accept death because you will die, so do not be scared, and live your life to the fullest enjoying every minute of it.
This poem can be considered Victorian because it shows an interest in the occult, or death.
The poet does not believe he will live eternally through his religion either, which he even says,” Ye will never see through eternity.” Two Poems Meeting at Night
The gray sea and the long black land;
And the yellow half-moon large and low
And the startled little waves that leap
In fiery ringlets from their sleep,
As I gain the cove with pushing prow,
And quench its speed i' the slushy sand.

Then a mile of warm sea-scented beach;
Three fields to cross till a farm appears;
A tap at the pane, the quick sharp scratch
And blue spurt of a lighted match,
And a voice less loud, through its joys and fears,
Than the two hearts beating each to each!

Parting at Morning
Round the cape of a sudden came the sea,
And the sun looked over the mountain's rim:
And straight was a path of gold for him,
And the need of a world of men for me. Summary Meeting at night is about two people longing to see each other.
They can only meet at night though and somebody has to go on a long journey in order for them to see each other.
When the traveler gets to the house they have to be quiet. It says, “a voice less loud, through its joys and fears.”
This means they have to whisper and more than likely, the one traveling is not welcomed at that house.
The theme is you will reach success if you have a big enough motivation and work hard to pass through the obstacles in your way.
What makes this poem Victorian is it follows some of the Romanticism roots and Victorian poets are known for doing that. Summary Parting at Morning is about having to leave what you love because you are needed to perform a bigger task.
That is also the theme too.
It is Victorian because there is skepticism in this. Victorian Poetry Poetry written during Queen Victoria’s reign from 1837 to 1901 is classified as Victorian Poetry.
The poetry literally describes the events in the time of her reign.
They were heirs to their romantic period writers in which they had a distrust of organized religion, they believed in skepticism, and had an interest in the occult and the mysterious.
Some Victorian poetry deals with serious and more realistic subjects than Romanticism, like child labor, slavery, and other such social injustices.
Victorian poets liked to convey scientific beliefs to try and disprove the belief in God. During this time Britain was going through its industrial revolution.
There was a severe depression in 1837 and in 1842 1.5 million people were unemployed.
Children were working 12 hours days in coal mines and other factory jobs.
Also in 1845 through 1849 Ireland experienced a potato famine that forced 2 million people to immigrate to England or die.
When they got to England they lived in overcrowded slums in horrible conditions.
In 1867 the 2nd reform act gave most working-men the right to vote.
There were other acts which made sure children could not work more than 10 hours a day.
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