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FLVS AP Psychology - 4.06 Presentation
Transcript of FLVS AP Psychology - 4.06 Presentation
1. Sensorimotor (0-2 years)
2. Preoperational (2-7 years)
3. Concrete Operations (7-12 years)
4. Formal Operations (12-Adults)
Since I cannot recall specific examples from my own childhood, I will use my sisters.
The Sensorimotor Stage
The sensorimotor phase happens during the first two years of a child's life. They are highly dependent on their guardians for care. They are not terribly social. They prefer to explore objects and people but they do not seek out relationships at this time. Children in the sensorimotor phase are developing object permanence and discovering that concepts and mental images represent people and objects.
I played with an infant yesterday that really liked it when I played "Peekaboo" with her. It occurred to me that she did not yet have object permanence and believed that my face disappeared every time it went behind my hands.
Kubler-Ross's Stages of Death & Dying
The Preoperational Stage
The preoperational stage begins at two years of age and ends at the seventh year. Children grow quite a bit during this stage. They are more social, seeking relationships outside of their family. Cognitively, they can picture and name objects and events. They learn to roleplay social situations through pretend games. However, they cannot conserve or logically reason.
My little sister, Alexa, is in the preoperational stage. She is five, almost six years old. She often plays out scenarios that she sees on television or acts like Mommy by putting on her shoes or her makeup. She has a little friend, Natalie, that she likes to hang out with. I just did an experiment with her to see if she can conserve - she cannot.
Erikson's Psychosocial Development
1. Trust vs. Mistrust
2. Autonomy vs. Doubt & Shame
3. Initiative vs. Guilt
4. Industry vs. Inferiority
5. Identity vs. Role Confusion
6. Intimacy vs. Isolation
7. Generativity vs. Stagnation
8. Ego Integrity vs. Despair
The Concrete Operations Stage
This stage lasts from the seventh to twelfth years of age. However, many adults stay in this stage for their whole lives. People in this stage can conserve, reverse thinking, think logically, and understand analogies about concrete events. Many children begin the early stages of puberty during this time.
Socially, people in this stage basically function as adults. They seek out close friendships and sometimes even romantic relationships (especially among the adults in this stage).
I have another sister, McKenzie, who is in this stage. She fits the standard for this stage and is ten years old. She has more friends than Alexa and is beginning puberty. I did the same experiment with McKenzie and she correctly conserved. She can also "think backwards" through an event, whereas Alexa cannot. She can also think logically and often negotiates for things.
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development
Again, due to a lack of personal examples, I will use my sisters.
At about three to six years of age, the majority of children process scenarios with a preconventional morality. Children at this stage are just mastering language and social interaction. They are also rapidly growing and exploring the world around them. The moral system of a child in the preconventional stage of morality is based off of rewards versus punishments.
I told the Heinz story separately to McKenzie and Alexa. Neither one of them appear to be in this stage. However, Alexa may actually be in this stage because to her, the punishment of losing a spouse is worse than the punishment for stealing medicine. It may still be that her mind considers rewards and punishments in scenarios.
From about seven to eleven years of age, most children are in the conventional stage of morality. Having mastered language and the basics of social interaction, children at this stage now wish to function well in society and make judgments based on what is "right" and "wrong". If something is illegal, but morally right, children in this stage often would not do it because it is against the law.
Neither McKenzie nor Alexa seem to be in this stage. Illegality does not seem to be a factor in their decisions. I asked both of them whether they thought Heinz should go to jail; Alexa said no, and Mckenzie said yes, but the theft was worth the jail time.
From the age of twelve onward, children develop their independent thoughts and opinions. They may disagree with what is legal or illegal because they now understand that morality exists beyond the dictates of an authority figure or group.
I fully believe McKenzie is in this stage, even though she is a bit young. I am not sure about Alexa.
The person who is grieving themselves or another at first cannot believe that they are going to die/a loved one has passed.
When my pastor died nearly two years ago, I could not believe he was dead. In some ways, it still does not occur to me. I am aware that he is not at my church, but my mind does not really consider him to be dead.
The person grieving next becomes very angry. They can become angry at a certain situation, the deceased, themselves, and even God.
I never became angry, but my mother did. She was very angry because our pastor was overweight and ad died of a massive heart attack. She felt that if he had only taken better care of his health that he would still be with us. If I ever lose my parents I will probably feel very angry and alone.
After the anger phase, the person tries to bargain with whomever they can to try and change the situation.
I asked God to bring our pastor back from the dead. Such a thing had happened before at our congregation.
The person then slumps into a depression, mourning the loss of themselves or someone they love.
My mom was in a depression for about a week. I can't say I ever acknowledged my feelings. I felt sad, but there was no depression. I have never lost anyone closer to me.
The person finally realizes that what is done is done, and they accept the situation for what it is.
I believe I am in this stage now.
Trust versus Mistrust
From birth to about the first year, babies learn to inherently trust or distrust the people around them by how responsive they are to the infants' needs.
I tend to trust people because I was well cared for as an infant.
Autonomy versus Doubt & Shame
From one to three years old, toddlers learn that they can direct their own behavior and move towards becoming more independent. The success or failure to become more independent results in the toddler either feeling autonomous or feeling self-doubt.
My mom always allowed me to make decision for myself (within reason). I was allowed to pick which outfit I wanted to wear, which cup I wanted to drink out of, and which television show I wanted to watch. I believe that her respect for my autonomy has made me the independent and confident person I am today.
Initiative versus Guilt
From three to five years of age, children are challenged to control their behavior and take responsibility. Succeeding in this has preschoolers taking the initiative for responsibility, and failing has preschoolers feeling guilty.
I don't remember much about this phase of my life. My sister, Alexa, is five and often takes initiative for different tasks like making herself a sandwich or getting dressed to go somewhere.
Industry versus Inferiority
School aged children try to learn new skills during this stage. They compare themselves to those around them. If they feel they are doing well, they feel competent. If they feel they are doing poorly, they feel inferior.
I have an incredibly high standard for doing well, I always have. I really needed to feel very competent for some reason, so I always tried to do extremely well in everything except Math. As far as I know I never acted like a know-it-all, but I hate B's on my grades.
Identity versus Role Confusion
During this stage, adolescents struggle to discover who they are and what their role is in society. One's sense of identity is changing during this stage. Those who understand themselves and what they want to accomplish will have a strong sense of identity. Those who do not will withdraw from peer groups.
I am very, very happy to know who I am and what I want. I have a very strong sense of identity. However, I am quite timid in large groups that I'm unfamiliar with, perhaps because my identity often conflicts with what people expect of me.
Intimacy versus Isolation
This stage comes in during early adulthood. The biggest drive during this time is to find a partner with whom they can share an intimate relationship. People who succeed at finding that partner have long and satisfying relationships. Those who fail to find a partner feel alone and often isolate themselves.
I slightly disagree with this because I know single people in their twenties and thirties that have neither found a partner nor isolated themselves. I sincerely hope that I do not feel this way when I get older. Finding a partner would be nice, but it is not a priority for me in the slightest.
Generativity versus Stagnation
The forties and fifties mark a time when adults want to be creative and nurturing individuals. They want to benefit their community and the next generation. However, if they do not manage to do this they often become self-centered and passive.
I feel that because I have figured out who I am and what I want to do, I will be better prepared to reach out to the community. This stage does not seem like it will be a problem for me.
Ego Integrity versus Despair
Adults in their more advanced years now look back on their lives to determine if they lived it the way they wanted to. They want to reach wisdom and tranquility. If they reach this goal, they will be content with their lives and not fear death. If they do not, and feel that their lives were a waste, they will become unhappy and terrified of death.
It is my hope that when I reach this stage I will look back on a full and uninhibited life. I want to live life to the fullest.
The Formal Operations Stage
This stage starts at about twelve years of age and continues throughout adulthood. There isn't much social difference between this stage and the concrete operations stage. Physically, children are now fully going through puberty. People in this stage can use abstract reasoning and abstract analogies, think about logical possibilities, and examine hypothetical situations.
I have another sister, Sophia, who is in this stage. She is fifteen years old. It is easier for her to complete her schoolwork than it would be for McKenzie or Alexa because a lot of her homework has to do with hypothetical situations, or "what if's".