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Final Dissertation - GLOPEM (14/02/2013)
Transcript of Final Dissertation - GLOPEM (14/02/2013)
Dipartimento di Scienze Politiche e Sociali
M.A. Degree in Global Politics and Euro-Mediterranean Relations (GLOPEM) Final Dissertation The EU and the MEPP:
appraising the evolution of a sui generis international actor Riccardo Fichera Catania, 14 febbraio 2013 Tutor: prof. F. Attinà
Discussant: prof.ssa S. Panebianco Conceptual Map Research question: Theoretical Framework Actorness: "the capacity to behave actively and deliberately in relation to other actors in the international system" (Sjöstedt, 1977) Internal Cohesion: International Presence: EFP Instruments: Three Variables the degree to which the member states agree with each other and overcome national differences, thus allowing the EU to formulate and adopt internally consistent policies (i.e. an "European stance"). the capacity to exert influence beyond its borders, in order to shape the third-parties' perceptions and expectations of the EU’s role in world politics (e.g. the EU within the WTO). the tools that enable the EU to engage in external relations, primarily of economic and diplomatic nature (e.g. joint declarations, joint actions and common positions,
European decisions). Broadly speaking... With regard to the MEPP... European
(EPC) 1969 1991 Single
(SEA) 1985 1997 2000 2007 "divergent
(C. Musu, 2010) France Italy Germany UK The EU and the MEPP:
How much of an actor? Middle East
stability Weapons of
(WMD) Spread of
terrorism United States vs European Union With regard to the MEPP... Divergence
(Cold War) Complementarity
(since 2002) Broadly speaking... 1995 2008 2004 Military
instruments despite the increasing institutionalisation and coordination among the national foreign policies, EU member states still maintain tight control over their foreign policy, stubbornly determined to protect what is deemed to be their national interest. In a nutshell, In a nutshell, Maastricht
Treaty Lisbon Treaty ( Intergovernamentalism ( and the lack of
contribute to hinder the unitary image of the EU's
foreign policy). "Three-pillar structure".
CFSP (Common Foreign and Security Policy) replaces EPC.
Intergovernmentalism is the rule.
Few new legal instruments.
Low level of institutionalisation. "Pillars structure" and intergovernmentalism remain.
More sophisticated legal instruments and procedures.
Increased level of institutionalisation (High Representative for CFSP and Special Envoys). CFSP is completed by ESDP (European Security and Defence Policy).
Increased level of institutionalisation (permanent committees). End of "pillars structure".
CSDP (Common Security and Defence Policy) replaces ESDP.
Appointment of a permanent High Representative of the Union for CFSP.
Creation of the EEAS (European External Action Service). In a nutshell, That's all, thanks! "Europe is an economic giant, a political dwarf and a military worm". (Mark Eyskens, former Belgian Foreign Affairs Minister, 1991) European
(UfM) Pro-Arab stance.
at the service of
French interests. Sense of special responsability towards Israel (Holocaust). Torn between the past of colonial power and its close ties with the US. Mediterranean dimension of the EU. Ambivalent relations with Israel (e.g. EU membership). legal persona- lity Camp David ('78/'79): bilateral peace deal between Israel and Egypt, and Palestinian issue sidelined;
Venice Declaration (1980): Palestinian right of "self-determination", and Israeli settlements "illegal under international law". Madrid Conference (1991) and Oslo Accords (1993):
diplomacy to US, whereas regional cooperation, economic peace-building and Palestinian institution-building to EU. 9/11 and Quartet:
convergence in condemning Hamas victory in 2006.
US plays an EU tune. only through coordination with the US the EU's policy of contributing to institution-building and to the establishment of a functioning economy in the Palestinian territories can create the necessary conditions for a viable Palestinian state to be created. Liberal region-building process;
Negative conditionality. More realist and pragmatic bilateralism
("ring of friends");
Tailor-made targeted approach;
Positive ("more for more") conditionality;
"All but institutions"
(Prodi, 2002) Nicolas Sarkozy's 2007 campaign for French Presidency.
German chancellor Merkel succeeded
in "Europeanizing" Sarkozy's Mediterranean vision.
44 members: 27 EU member states, 11 Mediterranean countries; 4 Adriatic and Balkan countries; more European Commission and Arab League. Schuman Document
(1980). EUPOL COPPS
(European Union Police
Co-ordinating Office for
Palestinian Police Support)
(European Union Border
in Rafah). First donor of financial and technical assistance to the Palestinian Authority (e.g. TIM and PEGASE).
First trading partner and a major economic and research partner of Israel (e.g. Association Agreement and Action Plan). the use of economic instruments is the one that has most characterised the European action. Unfortunately, the limited availability of military instrumen seriously diminished the EU's influence on the MEPP, having a negative effect on its chances of becoming an acknowledged and reliable mediator (and the parties involved continue to turn to the US). economic instruments military European policies vis-à-vis the MEPP can be
viewed as an "in fieri" proces ..
Since the Venice Declaration, European stance has slowly taken shape and finally resulted in the recognition as an equal negotiation partner within the
in . However, even though this process must be acknowledged, there still remain several steps to go for the EU to fulfill thoroughly the requirements. process Venice Declaration Quartet actorness UN General Assembly vote on Palestine "observer state" status (November 2012) EU financial instruments to the PT from 1995 to 2010 instruments