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Nationalism!

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simran kripalani

on 16 April 2013

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Transcript of Nationalism!

Germany Central and South America Austria-Hungary Great Britain What is Nationalism? 1. The attitude that the members of a nation have when they show loyalty and devotion towards their national identity Nationalist Movements - Ethnic tensions were present in Hungary and Bohemia






- Therefore, tensions arose in the empire due to the different goals of each group of people
- These nationalist aspirations show that each group wanted to gain a prominent position within the Hapsburg Empire NATIONALISM Simran Chahal
Nitasha Goyal
Simran Kripalani
Anjani Patel
Yamini Vyas Period 12 A look at Austria-Hungary, Germany,
Great Britain, and the Americas “Nationalism” is generally used to describe: 3. The actions that people of a nation take when seeking to achieve self-determination 2. The exalting of one nation above all others by greatly emphasizing the promotion of its culture and interests Leading Unification - Similar to Italy, Germany achieved national unity in the mid-1800s
- 1815: 39 German states formed a loose grouping called the German Confederation
- Though the Austrian Empire dominated the confederation, Prussia was ready to unify all the German states


- Prussia had many advantages that allowed it to forge a strong German state
1) Prussia had a mainly German population
2) Prussia's army was the most powerful in central Europe
- 1848: Rioters in Berlin forced a constitutional convention to write a liberal constitution for the kingdom Otto von Bismarck - 1861: Wilhelm I succeeded Frederick William to the throne
- He felt that his authority was threatened by the liberal parliament
- He was supported by the Junkers, who were strong, conservative members of Prussia's wealthy landowning class
- 1862: Wilhelm chose Otto von Bismarck as his prime minister
- Bismarck was really good at realpolitik, or "the politics of reality"
- Bismarck, with the king's approval, declared that he would rule without the consent of parliament and without a legal budget


- He told parliament during his first speech: “It is not by means of speeches and majority resolutions that the great issues of the day will be decided—that was the great mistake of 1848 and 1849—but by blood and iron.” War and Expansion - Prussia and Austria formed an alliance and went to war against Denmark to win two border provinces, Schleswig and Holstein
- With a quick victory, national pride increased among the Prussians Effects and Influence - Nationalism's influence carried throughout Europe and the Americas
- It shaped countries by both creating new ones and breaking up old ones
- Authoritarian rulers realized that since nationalism could unify large masses of people, they could use these nationalist feelings for their own purposes
- Nationalism is the basis of world politics today and has often caused conflicts and wars Culturally distinct groups form into a new state by accepting a single culture 1) Unification: Mergers of politically divide by culturally similar lands 2) Separation: Culturally distinct group resists being added to a state or tries to break away 3) State-building: Bismarck Unites Germany Prussia Leads German Unification Bismarck Takes Control Prussia Expands Seven Weeks' War War and Expansion The Franco-Prussian War - A few southern German states still remained independent of Prussian Control
- Bismarck believed that if the south was threatened from the outside, he could win their support
- To instigate a war with France, Bismarck acted as if the Prussian king had been insulted by the French ambassador
- July 19, 1870: The French, angered by the deceit, declared war on Prussia
- September 1870: Prussian army surrounded the French force at Sedan and took about 80,000 prisoners
- Hunger ultimately forced the French to surrender to the siege


- Winning the war caused nationalism to take place in southern Germany, allowing the people to accept Prussian control
- January 18, 1871: at Versailles, King Wilhelm I was crowned kaiser; Germans called their empire the Second Reich Ethnic Nationalism 1814 - 1848 Problems: • Germans: • Hungarians: • Croatians: believed they were in charge wanted Hungarians traditions to prevail outraged by the thinking of both the Germans and Hungarians Compromise Ausgleich - 1867: Franz Joseph I and a Hungarian delegation signed a compromise known as "Ausgleich"
- It divided Austria's empire into two part, effectively creating Austria-Hungary
- Austria-Hungary was a multi-national empire Dual Monarchy - Before, the empire had been controlled by the Germans that inhabited Austria
- After defeat in the Seven Weeks War, the Germans were forced to share power with the Hungarians and they were placed on an equal footing with them
- This was called "Dual Monarchy"; The Emperor of Austria was also the King of Hungary
- From 1848 - 1916, the emperor was Franz Joseph I from the Hapsburg family, the traditional rulers of Austria
- He was the uncle of Franz Ferdinand, the assassinated Archduke of Austria-Hungary
- The assassination was the spark of WWI

- The single most important issue facing the empire was nationalism
- Different national groups demanded political and cultural equality The End The Austrian Half - Power of the parliament was restricted
- Emperor had control over foreign affairs
- Parliament was elected on a limited franchise
- The Austrians made attempts to give their subject nationalities a share in the government of their half of the empire Powers - The peoples controlled by the Austrians consisted of:
•Poles
•Czechs
•Slovenes
•Ruthenians
•Italians
- However, when the government introduced reforms to improve minority language or custom rights, it was opposed by the Germans
- Reform became difficult
- Nationalist rivalry between the Czechs and the Germans became intense Diversity The Hungarian Half - Hungarians had political power
- Different nationalities in Hungary consisted of:
•Romanians
•Serbs
•Slovaks
- The different groups of people were forced to endure a policy of Hungarization
- For example, the Hungarian language was made mandatory in government, education, and law
- This created much tension between different nationalities National Identities Blood and Iron - Bismarck, however, purposely created border conflicts with Austria over Schleswig and Holstein, provoking Austria to declare war on Prussia in 1866
- This was known as the Seven Weeks' War
- The Prussians won a huge and devastating victory due to their superior training and equipment, humiliating Austria
- Prussia took control of northern Germany and, for the first time, the eastern and western parts of the Prussian kingdom were joined
- 1867: the remaining states of the north joined the North German Confederation The Second Reich A Shift in Power The Great Powers - The 1815 Congress of Vienna had established 5 Great Powers in Europe
•Britain
•France
•Austria
•Prussia
•Russia
- Then, the Great Powers had been almost equal in strength
- When Prussia joined with other states to form Germany, they grew stronger than the others
- By 1871, both Britain and Germany were the most powerful, militarily and economically Latin american countries were divided into 6 social classes based on “purity”: Background Peninsulares Born in Spain
- Highest amount of authority
-Control and Power Creoles -Spaniards born in Latin America
- Both Parents are Peninsulares
-Second most power
-This is an issue that will lead to nationalism
-Believed that they deserve same power as Peninsulares because they are still "Pure" Causes and Effects Causes:
Enlightenment ideas spread to the Americas
Leaders call for independence
Spain's powers weaken
Spain tries to enforce more power in the colonies Effects: Nations in Latin America want independence
Civil Wars
New constitutions
Strong military leaders
Caudillos take power (Mexico)
Little social gain in Mexico
Economically dependent
South America dependent on other buying their one crop Brazil Bloodless independence (revolt) Napoleon took over Portugal and the royal families escaped to Brazil - the largest colony.
There the royal families made Brazil the center of the empire for 14 years until Napoleon was defeated.
Then the people wanted their freedom and in 1822 the creoles asked the son of the Portuguese King to make Brazil independent. Brazil Gran Colombia, Argentina, Chile, and Peru Simon Bolivar Led Colombia Venezuela Ecuador and Bolivia to independence
-writer fighter and political thinker
- survived defeats and exile and won independence for Venezuela in 1821

Participated in the first union of independent nations in Hispanic - America
- a republic named Colombia
-President from 1819 - 1830 Fight To Free From Spain -Venezuela delcared independence in 1811 Fight For Freedom From Spain Mexico: Mestizos and Indians led the fight
-1810 when Miguel Hidalgo called for a revolt against Spain
-Jose Maria Morelos took leadership after Hidalgo's defeat
-In the beginning the creoles fought on the side of the Spanish government to put down the lower classes due to fear of losing power --> won in 1815 Effects: -1821 Spain accepted Mexico’s independence
-1823 Central America separated itself from Mexico
-1824: Establishment of the Mexican Republic
-Mexican Congress: started to write constitution for federal republic but creoles disagreed on the writing. Haiti: Dual Monarchy and Separation of Austria-Hungary Otto von Bismarck "Germania" 1st Wave Era Of Santa Anna : 1823 - 1855 Problems Following Freedom and Instability: Large Debt
Mining Stopped
Agriculture Declined
Trade Suffered Status of Great Britain Santa Anna: Dictator
Engaged in war with US
Signed Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo End: Great Debt and exiled from Mexico Government War of Reform Conservatives VS Liberals Liberals:
free trading
model the Unites States
Church sell all its land
led by Benito Juarez Conservatives
support the army
support the manufacturing companies
gain foreign support
Napoleon helped and put Maximilian of Hapsburg in charge Effects
Juarez became president
destroyed power of the army, the Church and other conservative elements
Federal constitution of 1857
NEW SENSE OF NATIONAISM Government Continuity and Change Benito Juarez Santa Anna western third of the Hispanola in the Caribbean Sea

Known for:
Plantations, slavery and sugar
Revolution: Against French Control Revolution : Toussaint L'Ouverture - former self educated slave
-skilled general and diplomat though untrained in political affairs
-led the slave revolt
- First Successful Slave Revolt

United the People 1804 - independent country
1820 - independent republic Peru and Argentina Jose de San Martin: - helped win independence for Argentina in 1816 and Chile in 1818Combined forces led many Spanish Colonies to independence -Ecuador Lima and Peru
Fighting continued and in 1820 a new government took charge in Spain
- the creoles joined the side of the rebelling forces and fought for independence. 2nd wave Franz Joseph Assassination of Franz Ferdinand One Cause of WWI Commercial Rivalry -Britain was the most industrially advanced country in Europe
-Possessed the largest overseas empire and the largest navy in the world
-Chief enemies were France and Russia in terms of colonial interests
-Britain and France had colonial rivalries in Asia and Africa
•for example, India, Burma, Thailand, and Egypt Staying Strong - During the last half of the century, Germany started to undermine England's industrial superiority
- Germany's industries were still small at that point
• However, their industrial revolution was new and they had the benefits of the
latest inventions
- By the end of the 19th century, some severe economic problems were appearing in England
- As a result, pessimism and economic fear were beginning to grip to English mindset
- The English started to take alarm at new competitors, the most hated of which became Germany Competition Conflicts Russia and Germany -Russia's interest in the Balkan area alarmed Britain
-British naval interests in the Mediterranean Sea would be immediately threatened
-After 1890, as Germany went on increasing their naval strength and threatened British naval supremacy and the British overseas interests
-Attention shifts to Germany as they became Britain's chief enemy Queen Victoria - The government of Great Britain had become the envy of many around the world
- A clear two-party system, Liberal and Conservative, emerged
- The Liberal party tended to be more open to changes, while the Conservatives sought to preserve traditional practices and values
- Both parties had able leadership
•William Gladstone led the Liberals
•Benjamin Disraeli the Conservatives Emerging Parties William Gladstone Benjamin Disraeli - The immediate gains to the wider population of Britain were moderate
•The first two working-class members of Parliament were elected in 1874
- The reforms showed the promise of the democratic turn Great Britain was taking
- Nationalism had dangerous side effects as well:
•Hatreds among nations
•An emphasis on militarism
•An attempt to find security through international alliances Pros and Cons The End
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