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Immune System

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by

Erica / Rachel Project

on 9 January 2014

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Transcript of Immune System

Allergic Responses
When you have an allergic response, your body is over reacting to simple, harmless things and treats them like a virus that it needs to get rid of. That's why you have some of the same signs as when you are really sick as when you have an allergic response.
Diseases in the Immune System
One disease that effects the immune system is
immunodeficiency
. This disease is often found in young children and causes them to not have enough white blood cells.
Children who have this disease live in constant danger of dying from a common cold because of their lack of white blood cells These children then have to live in a sterile environment for the remainder of their life
Another group of diseases in the immune system are the
autoimmune
diseases. This is when your immune system overreacts and starts to kill your tissues in your body instead of the viruses or bacteria.
The skin as a defense
The skin acts as a defense against disease by keeping out most harmful bacteria and viruses
Most bacteria and viruses enter your body through open wounds so I can infer that our skin is a very good defense against diseases and that it acts like a screen, it lets the good stuff in and keeps the harmful stuff out.
General Health Guidelines For the Immune System
Trying to improve your immune system has been on some people's list of things to do for ages, but there really isn't much you can do to boost this system, you can take daily vitamins and some studies show that your diet and amount of exercise can help improve the immune system
For a system that keeps you healthy, there isn't much we can do to improve its ability to work more efficiently and completely
Function and Structure
The main function of the Immune system is to fight bacteria and viruses.
One of the other functions is to immunize the body from certain diseases.
The Immune system includes the lymphoid organs and the white blood cells
the skin functions as a screen that blocks all of the bacteria that tries to enter your body through a cut
white blood cells attack the invaders that try to harm your body
the immune system works 24 hours a day seven days a week. we only really notice when our immune system fails, which results in us getting sick.
Immune System
B and T cells
In the immune system there are two main types of white blood cells, the T cell and the B cells.
The B cells are sort of like the controllers that tell the T cells what to do
There are two different types of T cells. The killer t cell and the helper T cells. The killer T cells are the attackers. They kill the invading bacteria and viruses. The helper T cells are responsible for immunity.
Vaccines vs. Immunity
Vaccines
are weakened forms of viruses which can be neutralized easily, which help the white blood cells get rid of the virus then you become immune
Immunity is when the white blood cells remember the virus and fight it immediately so you don't get sick
Antigen-Antibody Reaction
(1) First, the
B cell
finds an
antigen

(2) then the B cell waits until it is activated by the
Helper T
cell
(3) then the B cell divides to make memory and plasma cells
(4) Plasma cells produce
antibodies
that attach to the specific antigen or
pathogen
.
(5) the antibody is attached to an antigen to "Flag" it for the
Killer T
cell then the Killer T cells destroys the antigen
(6) If the same antigen attacks again the memory cells can help trigger the immune system much quicker
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
A B cell is like the controller white blood cell that tells the other white blood cells what to do
Helper T cells are very important in the fact that they send the signal for the B cells to start dividing
Killer t cells attack the invading viruses that are marked by the antigens.
An Antigen is a virus or bacteria that invades the body which triggers the immune system.
An antibody is produced by a B cell to attack a specific type of antigen to flag it for the killer T cells.
A pathogen is any type of invading bacteria or virus.
Organs in the Immune system
The organs in the Immune system are called the lymphoid organs
they include the
bone marrow
,
thymus gland
, spleen, lymph nodes, appendix, adenoids, lymphatic vessels, and payer's patches.
Blood cells in the immune system are the B, killer T and Helper T,
macrophages
, and the
lymphocytes
another type of white blood cell is a
leukocyte
.
the thymus gland creates T cells which help fight infections
the bone marrow creates the white and red blood cells which are critical for survival.
macrophages are another type of white blood cell that help to fight infections
a lymphocyte is another type of white blood cell that helps to fight infections
a vaccine is a weakened form of a disease that helps your body to become immune
Immune Responses
A non-specific response is where the immune system launches an attack on any bacteria or virus that is in the area, the Macrophages are one of the white blood cells that do this.
A specific response is triggered when the non-specific response doesn't work. This more commonly know as the antigen- antibody reaction
The inflammatory response is when the tissues damaged by a virus or bacteria release a fluid that causes swelling that attracts white blood cells to "eat" the invaders.
an immune response is when the immune system responds in some way
Common Things in the Immune System
-Medicines for the immune system
antihistamine

antibiotic
-
Fever
-
interferon
An antihistamine is a type of medicine that stops histamines, which are usually associated with allergies
an antibiotic destroys and does not allow invading bacteria or viruses to grow
A fever is a spike in your body's temperature in order to fight off an illness
an interferon is a protein released by your body that keeps an invading virus from growing or surviving
The end!
How does the immune system relate to the other systems?
The immune system relates to a number of different systems.
The circulatory system relates to to Immune systems in the fact that the white blood cells are a type of blood cell that is transported through all of the circulatory system. This was covered in the Immune system Brainpop.
The immune system also relates to the skeletal system as the white and red blood cells are made in the marrow of the bones. this was also covered in the Immune system Brainpop.
The lymphatic system is also related to the immune system because some of the white blood cells are made in the lymphatic organs. This was talked about in this youtube video,
The immune system is related to the digestive system because a lot of bacteria that is in the food we eat can get us sick. this is talked about in the you make me sick lab.
the immune system also relates to the nervous system because the nerves are what carry the messages to the body for the immune system to attack an invader.
Labs to systems
You make me sick lab
brainpops
Immune responses game
nervous system lab
you make me sick game
The you make me sick lab consisted of many different types of bacteria and viruses that you must identify. This lab gave me a knowledge of hoe bacteria and viruses enter the body and what harm they can cause if left untreated. This lab related to the immune system in the fact that it talks about how these diseases manage to get past our body's defenses.
There were many brainpops that related to the immune system. They all talked about what the immune system did for each topic. Some talked about allergic reactions, and what your body is doing, and then there were others that just laid out the basics of the immune system and its organs.
The Immune reponces game talked about what kind of responses that our bodies have to different diseases. It talked about what different responses do in our body. This game was related to the immune system because it talked about what kind of responces our immune system has to different things.
The nervous system lab tested the nerve endings in our body. the nervous system related to the immune system in the fact that it carries messages between the brain and the white blood cells about what the invader is doing.
The you make me sick game talked about what makes a sucsessful virus or bacteria so successful. you had to create a virus bacteria and launch it into the game to see how well it did. This game related to the immune system ion the fact that it showed how a successful virus worked to get passed your systems defenses.
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