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AKA Simple Tenses Simple Present Simple Past Simple Future Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect Present Progressive Past Progressive Future Progressive Present Perfect Progressive Past Perfect Progressive Future Perfect Progressive Verb Tense: Time (based on time frame) Past Tenses Future Tenses Present Tenses Simple Present Present Perfect Present Progressive Simple Past Past Perfect Past Progressive Simple Future Future Perfect Future Progressive Present Perfect Progressive Past Perfect Progressive Future Perfect Progressive Compare with the Simple Past Kim and John worked at the store for seven years. In the simple past, Kim and John worked at the store for seven years, but they may not be working there now. The period of time has ended. Kim and John have worked at the store for seven years. Kim and John may still be working at the store. The action is continued into the present. The period of time is still on-going. Also, the present perfect suggests that events or actions in the past affect events or actions in the present. The effect of the action still continues. The city council has ordered the people to obey the regulation. The city council ordered the people to obey the regulation. The use of simple past suggests that the order was just a one time event. It does not have effect on the present condition. In the present perfect, the sentence suggests that the order still has effect on the present condition. EX: The city council has ordered the people to not walk on walls. The city council's order still has effect on the present condition. "had" or "have" followed by a past participle EX: Lincoln bought games with the money he had earned from babysitting. Lincoln earned money BEFORE he used it to buy games. Future Perfect "will have" followed by a past participle Used to describe an action, event, or condition that will happen in the future but BEFORE another action EX: I will have finished my report by Wednesday. I will finish my report in the future, but BEFORE Wednesday is over. The end of an action can be either in the present, past, or future. Progressive Tenses (Incomplete Tenses) Progressive tenses indicate that an action, event, or condition is still on-going or unfinished. The on-going action can either be in the present, past, or future. Present Progressive "is" or "are" followed by a present participle Used to emphasize the on-going nature of an action, event, or condition in the present EX: She is eating a burger. The person eating a burger is eating right now and is continuing to do so. "was" or "were" followed by a present participle Used to describe on-going, continuous actions in the past Although you can use simple past instead of past perfect, the past perfect puts more emphasis on the order of events (what event preceded what other event). EX: The family was serving rice for dinner. Serving rice was an on-going action in the past. It continued for some time. So while the simple past describes an action that occurred at one point, one time in the past, the past progressive describes an action that occurred continuously. Future Progressive "will be" followed by a present participle Used to describe on-going actions that will occur in the future EX: The seer informed Rumpelstiltskin that he will be leaving his son fatherless. If Rumpelstiltskin does leave his son fatherless, it is a continuous action in the future. Combining Complete Tenses and Incomplete Tenses Combining complete tenses (perfect tenses) and incomplete tenses (progressive tenses) can be used to describe a finished actions that was on-going before Present Perfect Progressive "has been" or "have been" followed by a present participle Used to describe an action that began in the past but continues into the present Sound familiar? Emphasizes the on-going, continuous nature of that particular action EX: Some visitor has been knocking on my chamber door. The knocking of the chamber door is an action that began in the past but is continuing into the present. At the present time, the action is still on-going. Past Perfect Progressive "had been" or "have been" followed by a present participle Used to describe an on-going action in the past that happened before another action EX: My aunt's dog had been scratching at the front door before my aunt let him out. The dog scratching at the front door was a continuous action AND it happened before my aunt let the dog out. Both past perfect and progressive apply here. Future Perfect Progressive "will have been" followed by a present participle Used to describe an on-going action that will be completed in the future EX: The cake will have been baking in the oven for three hours by noon. The on-going action of baking will have "completed" three hours by noon. Verb Tense Consistency Keeping verb tenses consistent in writing is important: it provides a time frame that is that may provide information to the reader. Verb tense consistency and shift rules vary depending on the type of writing and what is being described. General Guidelines for Verb Consistency Verb tenses are used according to the time frame. Therefore, do not shift tenses if the time frame for the action is the same. But do shift tenses if the time frame changes from one action to another. INCORRECT: The puppy ran towards the swimming pool and jumps into the water. CORRECT: The puppy ran towards the swimming pool and jumped into the water. EX: Every summer, we visit the log cabin, which my grandfather built with my great-grandfather. Shifts in Paragraphs or Essays For paragraphs or essays, use a primary tense and some occasional shifts if time frame differs. Use present tense to state facts, to talk about habitual or perpetual actions, to state your ideas and opinions or another author's ideas and opinions, and to describe action in a literary work, movie, or narrative. Use past tense to narrate events and talk about historical references (like someone's life, biography). Use future tense to describe future actions. Incorporating Perfect Tenses present primary narration present perfect past primary narration past perfect future primary narration future perfect The present perfect is also used to describe events have just been completed e.g., "at the moment of utterance." EX: You have arrived at your destination. You just arrived at your destination. Past Participles These are part of a group called verbals (gerunds, past/present participles), which are nouns or adjectives formed from a verb. Past participles are formed from the past tense of a verb and functions as an adjective. Keep in mind that some verbs have irregular past tenses. Present Participle Present participles are also part of verbals. They are the "ing" form of a verb and function as an adjective. Works Cited http://cdn-media.ellentv.com/archive/images/blog/1110/23-funny-sign.jpg http://www.kimballstock.com/pix/PUP/08/PUP-08-SS0017-01P.JPG http://icdn5.digitaltrends.com/image/file-9689dc392a9c068e54ad90f3ae3a5c7f.jpg http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-JYuioxRjahA/T77fW2UiFXI/AAAAAAAABgY/nx7ba7UkgF4/s1600/Buying+Games.JPG http://www.dogcanyon.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/10/edgar-allan-poe.jpg http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/601/01/ http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/601/04/ http://www.writingcentre.uottawa.ca/hypergrammar/usetense.html http://www.writingcentre.uottawa.ca/hypergrammar/verbals.html EX: Rumpelstiltskin's wife, Milah, had been staying with Captain Hook the whole time. EX: Rumpelstiltskin's wife, Milah, was staying with Captain Hook when Rumpelstiltskin found her. Here, the sentence is describing an interruption. Milah's stay with Captain Hook was interrupted by Rumpelstiltskin's discovery of her whereabouts. The time is not specified here (this action took place before what?), so we can only assume that Milah's stay with Captain Hook was continuous and happened before another event. http://images.wikia.com/onceuponatime8042/images/0/0e/214Seeing.PNG http://kcts9.org/sites/default/files/imagecache/618x350/kitchen_small.jpg http://www.dogtraininggeek.com/image-files/dog-anxiety-damage.jpg http://i2.cdnds.net/12/43/618x366/ustv_once_upon_a_time_s02_e04_3.jpg By Manjima Sarkar, Ashin Katwala, Tiffany Huang Identifying