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IP Theory, Attention, STM & LTM


Eric Dickens

on 25 January 2011

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Transcript of IP Theory, Attention, STM & LTM

Information Processing Theory
Attention, STM & LTM Elaboration Constructing Images Organization Chunking Extremely Limited good encoding = good storage = good retrieval 30 seconds 7 units So, how do we make
the most of it? Reduce the "seven" Memory strategies like
Elaboration Automaticity What else helps? When you've done something so often,
you do not need to spend mental effort (or
"cognitive capacity") thinking about it Off -loading Having something/somebody else "think" for
you so that you do not need to spend mental
effort ("cognitive capacity") thinking about it Attentional Limits Just like our STM has limits,
so does our attention, and
avoiding distractions can be tough
1) What does it feel like to learn while
your attention is being diverted?
2) What distracts you?
3) What do you do to maintain attention? 5 Types of Attention Focused Selecting a stimuli from the environment Sustained Focusing on a stimuli/task over time Selective Focusing on a stimuli/task despite distractions Alternating Shifiting attention between multiple stimuli/tasks Divided Paying attention to multiple stimuli/tasks at the same time In your groups, discuss Hw Question #1:
Come up with an example of the 5 types of attention. 2) Why aren’t “hands free” cell phone systems any better for drivers?
3) What type of attention(s) are they talking about in this article? It's an epidemic... Change Blindness And it can be a big problem Sometimes we don't notice obvious changes in our environment
Attention is full
Attention is narrowly focused
We assume things we’re not paying attention to will stay the same
“Suppression” of the current environment Attention in the Classroom Attentional Control Develops
Age & experience
Brains, strategies & metacognition
Focused vs. sustained, selective, alternating & divided
Cognitive Inhibition
Individual differences In your groups, share...
1) How could you help a student develop better sustained, selective, alternating or divided attention?
Pick ONE of your examples to share to the class Helping your students focus...
How does attention work in schools?
What distracts students in classrooms?
How would you minimize those distractions?
Attentional Control Develops
Age & experience, but also…
Strategies for sustained, selective, alternating, divided
Cognitive Inhibition
Individual differences Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Biological disorder affecting attention management
3 Types
“Primarily Inattentive” “Primarily Hyperactive” “Combined”
HW Questions: In your groups:
How many people are estimated to have ADHD? If you teach 5 periods of high school science, how many ADHD students will you see every day?
What are some treatments for ADHD?
What can a teacher do to help a student with ADHD?
Overdiagnosed? Underdiagnosed? Missdiagnosed? Input -> Process -> Storage -> Output
Encoding -> Processing -> Storage -> Retrieval

Encoding happens as we…
Take in information
Think about information
Good encoding=good storage=good retrieval It all starts with attention Reduce the cognitive load Intrinsic cognitive load
The “built in” amount of thinking required for a cognitive task
Cannot really be altered by a teacher Extraneous cognitive load
The amount of thinking added to a cognitive task by by how the information is presented
Can be altered by the teacher & instructional materials Forgetting
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