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Diet Related Diseases
Transcript of Diet Related Diseases
Your family history:
Any family history of osteoporosis and fractures
Your medical history:
Certain conditions and medications can increase your risk of osteoporosis
Cortico-steroids (commonly used for Asthma)
Over-active thyroid or parathyroid glands
Coeliac disease and other chronic gut conditions
Chronic liver or kidney disease
The following symptoms may also indicate an increased risk of osteoporosis.
Lack of libido
Other symptoms of low testosterone levels
If your period has stopped for 6-12 consecutive months Osteoporosis occurs when bones lose minerals, such as calcium, more quickly than the body can replace them, leading to a loss of bone thickness (bone mass or density). As a result, bones become thinner and less dense, so that even a minor bump or accident can cause serious fractures. These are known as fragility or minimal trauma fractures.
Any bone can be affected by osteoporosis, but the most common sites are bones in the hip, spine, wrist, ribs, pelvis and upper arm. Osteoporosis usually has no signs or symptoms until a fracture happens - this is why osteoporosis is often called the 'silent disease'.
Fractures due to osteoporosis (osteoporotic fractures) can lead to changes in posture (eg developing a stoop or Dowager's hump in your back), muscle weakness, loss of height and bone deformity of the spine. Fractures can lead to chronic pain, disability, loss of independence and even premature death. Diabetes 25% of children ages 5 to 10 years have high cholesterol, high blood pressure, or other early warning sign for heart disease. Coeliac disease is a permanent intestinal intolerance to gluten, a protein found in wheat, rye, barley and oats. The lining of the small intestine is damaged by gluten and this can interfere with the absorption of nutrients. A gluten free diet is the only treatment. The most common symptoms in adults can include:
Bloating and flatulence
Diarrhoea or constipation
Fatigue, weakness and lethargy
Nausea and vomiting
Weight loss – although weight gain is possible.
The most common symptoms in children include:
Abdominal pain, bloating and flatulence
Bulky, foul-smelling bowel motions
Diarrhoea or constipation
Nausea and vomiting
Poor weight gain or weight loss in older children
Delayed growth or delayed puberty
Irritability. Coeliac blood tests can be used for initial screening (‘coeliac serology and IgA’). If the results are positive, a referral to a gastroenterologist will be necessary. The diagnosis must be confirmed by performing a gastroscopy, a procedure that allows tiny samples (biopsies) to be taken from the small intestine. This procedure occurs while the person is under sedation and involves an endoscope being passed through the mouth into the small intestine. Obesity Anemia is a condition where there is an abnormally low number of red blood cells circulating in the body. It is the most common disorder of the red blood cells, affecting about 3.5 million Americans.
Anemia is not a disease. It is a condition that results from below-normal levels of hemoglobin in the red blood cells. Hemoglobin is the iron-containing pigment of the red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues. Symptoms of anemia include:
Heart palpitations (rapid or irregular beating)
Ringing in the ears (tinnitus)
Common signs include:
The normally red lining of the mouth and eyelids fades in color
Rapid heartbeat (tachycardia)
Abnormal menstruation (either absence of periods or increased bleeding) Coeliac Disease Coronary Heart Disease Anemia Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a narrowing of the small blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to the heart. CHD is also called coronary artery disease. Coronary heart disease is usually caused by a condition called atherosclerosis, which occurs when fatty material and other substances form a plaque build-up on the walls of your arteries. This causes them to get narrow. As the coronary arteries narrow, blood flow to the heart can slow down or stop. This can cause chest pain (stable angina), shortness of breath, heart attack, and other symptoms, usually when you are active. Symptons:
Chest pain or discomfort (angina) is the most common symptom. You feel this pain when the heart is not getting enough blood or oxygen. How bad the pain is varies from person to person.
It may feel heavy or like someone is squeezing your heart. You feel it under your breast bone (sternum), but also in your neck, arms, stomach, or upper back.
The pain usually occurs with activity or emotion, and goes away with rest or a medicine called nitroglycerin.
Other symptoms include shortness of breath and fatigue with activity (exertion).
Women, elderly people, and people with diabetes are more likely to have symptoms other than chest pain, such as:
Shortness of breath
Weakness Many tests help diagnose CHD. Usually, your doctor will order more than one test before making a definite diagnosis.
Tests may include:
Exercise stress test
Electron-beam computed tomography (EBCT) to look for calcium in the lining of the arteries -- the more calcium, the higher your chance for CHD
CT angiography -- a noninvasive way to perform coronary angiography
Magnetic resonance angiography
Coronary angiography/arteriography -- an invasive procedure designed to evaluate the heart arteries under x-ray
Treatment depends on your symptoms and how severe the disease is. Your doctor may give you one or more medicines to treat CHD, including:
ACE inhibitors to lower blood pressure and protect your heart
Beta-blockers to lower heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen use by the heart
Calcium channel blockers to relax arteries, lowering blood pressure and reducing strain on the heart
Diuretics to lower blood pressure and treat congestive heart failure
Nitrates (such as nitroglycerin) to stop chest pain and improve blood supply to the heart
Statins to lower cholesterol
Procedures and surgeries used to treat CHD include:
Angioplasty and stent placement, called percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs)
Coronary artery bypass surgery
Minimally invasive heart surgery
Lifestyle changes are very important. Your doctor may tell you to:
Avoid or reduce the amount of salt (sodium) you eat
Eat a heart healthy diet -- one that is low in saturated fats, cholesterol, and trans fat
Get regular exercise and maintain a healthy weight
Keep your blood sugar strictly under control if you have diabetes
Bowel Cancer Bowel cancer is a serious disease but, if diagnosed early, is often curable. Bowel cancer is also called colorectal cancer. Blood or mucus in the faeces (poo) may be a symptom of bowel cancer. Other symptoms may include diarrhoea or constipation, bloating or cramps and constant fatigue. Regular health checks and screening for bowel cancer every two years from the age of 50 is recommended. Hypertension The heart pumps blood around the body through the blood vessels. Blood pressure is the amount of force exerted on the artery walls by the pumping blood. High blood pressure (hypertension) means that your blood is pumping with more force than normal through your arteries. The added stress on the arteries can speed up the clogging of arteries with fatty plaques (atherosclerosis). Atherosclerosis contributes to many illnesses, such as heart attack and stroke. Other risk factors for atherosclerosis include cigarette smoking and high blood cholesterol. Hypertension is a common disorder of the circulatory system, affecting around one in seven adult Australians and becoming more common with age. Older people may experience a change in their blood pressure pattern due to their arteries becoming more rigid (less elastic). Hypertension usually produces no symptoms. Hypertension can be mild, moderate or severe. Your blood pressure is naturally higher when you are exerting yourself, such as during physical exercise. It is only a concern if your blood pressure is high when you are at rest, because this means your heart is overworked and your arteries have extra stress in their walls.
Blood pressure readings are a combination of two measurements. These are:
Systolic – is the highest pressure against the arteries as the heart pumps. The normal systolic pressure is usually between 110 and 130mmHg.
Diastolic – is the pressure against the arteries as the heart relaxes and fills with blood. The normal diastolic pressure is usually between 70 and 80mmHg. Blood pressure is measured using an instrument called a sphygmomanometer.
An inflatable pressure bag is wrapped around the upper arm. The bag is connected to the sphygmomanometer. The operator pumps up the bag with air until the circulation of the arm’s main artery is interrupted.
The pressure in the bag is then slowly released until it equals the systolic pressure in the artery, indicated by blood once again moving through the vessel. This makes a ‘thumping’ sound. The systolic pressure is indicated on the sphygmomanometer and recorded.
The blood pressure in the arm’s main artery drops to equal the lowest pressure, which is the diastolic pressure. This is the pressure at which the thumping sound is no longer heard. This figure is also recorded.
The operator may take numerous readings to get the true picture. This is because many people tend to ‘tense up’ during the procedure and nervous tension may temporarily boost the blood pressure.
The accuracy of electronic measuring and recording of both systolic and diastolic pressures is replacing manual and auditory blood pressure recording. Hypertension usually does not produce any symptoms, because the organs of the body can resist high blood pressure for a long time. That’s why it’s important to have regular medical examinations to make sure your blood pressure isn’t creeping up as you grow older.
High blood pressure over a period of time can contribute to many illnesses, including:
Some of the factors which can contribute to high blood pressure include:
Lack of exercise
A diet high in salt
Kidney disease. Dental Caries Dental caries, or dental decay, is a common disease, which causes cavities and discoloration of both permanent and "baby" teeth. As the disease progresses in a tooth it becomes weaker and its nerve may be damaged. If you have a sensible diet, a good flow of saliva, a cleaning routine and your teeth get an appropriate fluoride exposure, you are unlikely to get decay. So, you can prevent decay by:
1. being careful with how often you eat sugary foods or have sugary drinks.
2. brushing and flossing your teeth carefully to reduce the amount of bacteria on their surfaces.
3. using fluoride toothpaste. This will make the surfaces of teeth more resistant to acid. The fluoride in our water supply strengthens the developing teeth of infants and children. Early dental caries is reversible. Mineral can be deposited back onto the tooth surface if you can modify your diet and oral hygiene. Your dentist can treat early areas of caries with topical fluoride, and if you are careful with your diet and cleaning no other treatment may be required.
A more advanced area of dental caries will require a "filling". Your dentist will remove the damaged and infected soft tooth structure and repair the tooth. It is important to have this done as early as possible to preserve the strength of the tooth and prevent bacteria damaging the tooth pulp.
It is very important to listen to your dentist’s advice on how to eliminate the cause of your caries. Don’t think that just fixing a cavity will stop the disease from occurring in other areas of the mouth. Being careful about how often you have sugar in your food and drinks is the best way to prevent and treat dental caries.
How often you have sugary food and drinks is more important than how much sugar you have in your food and drinks.
Other ways you may help prevent dental caries with your diet are:
> Rinse your mouth with water after having sugary food or drink
> Have a small amount of cheese after sugary food or drink. This will help to neutralize the acid produced by oral bacteria.
> Using sugarless chewing gum may help protect your teeth by stimulating extra saliva. Saliva is very important in protecting your teeth from decay.
> Do not put any sugar or other sweeteners in babies' bottles.
> Remember the drying effect of excess caffeine.
> Remember that smoking changes the saliva to a more harmful consistency