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Euginio Barba - Intercultralism

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john fisher

on 5 May 2014

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Transcript of Euginio Barba - Intercultralism

Born in Italy, 1936.

Emigrated to Norway in 1954.

1961, worked with Grotowski in Poland

1964, created Odin Teatret Theatre company
Intercultural Theatre
Odin Teatret
Ornitofilene
- Jens Bjorneboe
- Oslo, Norway in October 1965
- Performed around 50 times in Norway and Scandalnavia
- Wealthy investors Vs villagers
- Cross cultural exchange between Germans and Italians
- “Explored the contradictions of yesterday’s killers being today’s protectors and the victims of the past being nature’s present day enemies”(Watson, 1993:121)
- "Barba made extensive use of chanting and singing, as well as role swapping, in full view of the audience, with minimal costume changes”
(Watson, 1993:122)

Kaspariana
- Ole Sarvig
- Kaspar Hauser tale
- First performed in Holstebro in September 1967
- 7 actors from Sweden, Denmark and Norway

'This tale has been used in many novels, plays, and films as a metaphor of a natural man's struggle against socialisation'(Innes,1981:180)

'Symbolises the crushing of the human spirit under the pressures of social conditioning”(Watson,1993:122)

'For Barba and Grotowski, the theatre comes not from the world of Law but from the world of Love, and a true caritas is created between the actors who signify and the spectators whose subconscious receives the signs, in a common, frarernal revelation of their destiny as men vowed to misfortune, destruction, and death, permantlu alienated from liberty and truth.' (Fumaroli, 1968:55)

'Barba’s continuation of Grotoski’s research into the psychological basis of acting led to the formulation of a 'new theatrical language'.' (Innes,1981:183)


Criticisms
• ISTA limits itself to European and Asian intercultaralisation
• Barba's notion of Pre-expressivity has been criticised for not being able to differentiate between culture and gender.
• Barba rarely references other disciplines of theatrical study, and holds himself away from more conventional practices. "Floating Island"
• Barba's definitions of theatre have been said to be limited.
• According to Barba; "Theatre Anthropology does not seek to define in a scientific sense. It is a search for 'bits of advice', 'information', that can be followed or ignored".
• Barba has been described as lacking in creativity
• Eugenio Barba is a theatre practitioner.
• Although he has lived a long and fruitful life and his work is based upon his own life experiences, he does not relate his work to other theorists.
Eugenio Barba
And Intercultural Theatre
Barba's Impact
• His work has had an impact on the way the theatre going audience perceives contemporary theatre.
• His work had been published in magazines and many books by other drama theorists.
• With Barba's work with ISTA and Theatrum Mundi he is firstly a teacher, developing young performers.
• His theories focus on the actor rather than the audience, teaching new techniques and studies.
• Because of Barba, Grotowski's work was publicised and became popular, without it Grotowski's contribution to theatre would be minimal and his techniques would have remained un-used.
- Set up by Euginio Barba in Oslo, Norway in 1964
- Moved to Denmark in 1966
- Actors were expelled drama students
- 74 & 25
- Grotowski's
- Ornitofilene and Kaspariana

Eugenio Barba

• The focal point of Theatre Anthropology
• Recurring principles
• Extra-daily techniques
• Energy
'It is the doing and how the doing is done that determine what one expresses'. (Barba,1995)
What is Pre-Expressivity?
‘In comparative cultural studies there is a tendency to use the “host” culture as the point of departure for a study of the “foreign” or “other” culture. Most Western commentators when discovering ISTA, for instance, emhapsize the East-West/Asian-European dichotomy, as if all the Asian (foreign) performance cultures are much the same, as if all the Western (host) performance cultures." (Pavis, 1996)
Barba's Influences
Samuel Beckett

Jerzy Grotowski

Sanjukta Panigrahi
Anon, (2014). [image] Available at: http://zumaworld.blogspot.co.uk/2011/04/waiting-for-waiting-for-godot-samuel.html [Accessed 5 May. 2014].
Anon, (2014). [image] Available at: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/7/73/Sanjukta_Panigrahi%2C_%281944-1997%29.jpg [Accessed 5 May. 2014].
Anon, (2014). [image] Available at: http://tactuacion.blogspot.co.uk/2011/11/hacia-un-teatro-pobre-jerzy-grotowski.html [Accessed 5 May. 2014].
Barba, E (1995) The paper canoe: a guide to theatre anthropology. London: Routledge
Barba, E. Savarese, N. (1991) A Dictionary of Theatre Anthropology; The Secret Art of the Performer. London: Routledge
Barba, E. and Savarese, N. (1991). The secret art of the performer. 1st ed. London: Published for the Centre for Performance Research by Routledge
Fumaroli M (1968) Funeral Rights: Eugenio Barba: The Drama Review: London, Routledge
Innes. C (1981) Holy Theatre: Ritual and the Avant-garde London: CUP Archive
Knowles, R. (2010) Theatre & Interculturalism. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
Pavis, P. (1996) The Intercultural Performance Reader. London: Routledge.
Schechner, R. and Turner, V. (1985). Between theater & anthropology. 1st ed. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Watson, I. (2002) Negotiating Cultures; Eugenio Barba and the Intercultural Debate. Machester: Manchester University Press.
Watson. I (1993) Towards A Third Theatre: Eugenio Barba and the Odin Teatret London: Routledge
Yarrow, R (1997) Presence and pre-expressivity. 6. Netherlands: Harwood Academic publishers
Danish Flag. (2014). [image] Available at: httpwww.all-flags-world.comcountry-flagDenmarkflag-denmark-L.jpg [Accessed 5 May. 2014].
Indian Flag. (2014). [image] Available at: httpwallpaperpassion.comupload24669independence-day-fleg-wallpaper.jpg [Accessed 5 May. 2014].
ISTA, (2014). ISTA Logo. [image] Available at: httpwww.icsaddis.edu.etsitesdefaultfilesresizeadminpicturesISTA-178x178.jpg [Accessed 5 May. 2014].
Japanese Flag. (2014). [image] Available at: httpwww.mapsofworld.comimagesworld-countries-flagsjapan-flag.gif [Accessed 5 May. 2014].


Bibliography
ISTA
Organises situations and contexts in which to question, practically and comparatively, the actor's craft
European and Asian forms of theatre, which Barba believes are governed by systematic rules of physical behaviour.
Barba explains that these ISTA’s looked at the pragmatic fundamentals of movement all composed into a case study of provincial mise-en-scene.
Intercultural Vs Intracultural.

Theatre Mundi
The Island of Labyrinths
Explored theatre anthropology and recurring principles used by performers at a pre-expressive level of organisation.
“Equilibrium in disequilibrium.”

‘It begins with the assumption that culture - the fluid, day-to-day, lived realities of specific peoples in specific places and at specific times -exists only insofar as it is enacted, performed into being by the daily and (extra daily) ritual and performative activities of individuals and communities as they negotiate their place in the world.’ (Knowles, 2010, p.1)
How cultures and cultural forms interact and negotiate their differences through performative exchange and on the relationships between theatre and performance, interculturalism, and the formation of individual and communities identities in an increasingly multicultural world. (Knowles, 2010, p.1)


‘Paradoxically, this new “genre”, with which one immediately associates with the names of Brook, Barba or Mnouchkine, has not managed to find its own identity. It remains no more than the tip of an iceberg; we are still uncertain as to whether this visible portion signals a depth of startling proportions hidden from view, or whether it is already in the process of melting away under the spotlights of our (post)modernity.’ (Pavis, 1996, p.1)
“Transition is itself a culture. Every culture must have three aspects: material production by means of particular techniques, biological reproduction making possible the transmission of experience from generation to generation, and the production of meanings”. (Barba, 1995, p.5)
'Culture is transmitted by what has been called 'social heredity', that is, by a certain number of techniques through which each generation interiorizes for the next communal inflection of the psyche and the organism which culture comprises.' (Camilleri,1982, p.16-17)
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