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The Four Waves of Terrorism, by David C Rapoport (2004)
Transcript of The Four Waves of Terrorism, by David C Rapoport (2004)
Time Period: 1920's-1960's
New Left Wing
Time Period: 1960's-1990's
Time Period: Present Day
From this, we can conclude that terrorism is not something that is different for each group but is an evolution. Each wave pattern shows that the groups involved have tried to learn from the previous and evolved their tactics to reflect the evolution of counter-terrorism strategies enforced by states
Rapoport (2004) created a wave system in defining how different types of terrorism come and go. His work has been used for many years in helping to understand how and why terrorism works.
Time Period: 1880s-1920s
Russia 1880's: Czar Alexander II loosens up society/change didn't happen right away/1890's "Golden Age of Assassination"
Self-defined as terrorists/ideology is vindicated by history as liberators
Anarchist defining factors
End of World War I, break up of empires/many new states enter world system/power struggle ensues
Anti-colonial defining factors
Eliminating police "eyes and ears"/military response=counter atrocities/diaspora groups contribute $$, and influence/supranational organizations (League of Nations/United Nations)
Vietnam War (Vietcong)/Palestine-Israel Conflict (PLO)
New Left defining factors
Theatrical targets replace military targets-hijackings, kidnappings, hostage takings/cooperation against groups "our struggle"
Iranian Revolution/Soviet Union invades Afghanistan
"Religious" defining factors
Religious appeals/suicide bombings/fewer terrorist groups with wider recruiting tactics/more deadly attack