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CHAPTER 16 - 20, RIZAL'S LIFE
Transcript of CHAPTER 16 - 20, RIZAL'S LIFE
Rizal received news from Juan Luna and Valentin Ventura that the Filipinos in Spain were destroying the good name of their nation by gambling too much. Accordingly Rizal wrote to M. H. Del Pilar on May 28, 1890 to remind the Filipinos in Madrid that they did not come to Europe to gamble, but to work for their fatherland’s freedom.
The gambling people in Madrid were angry when they learned of Rizal’s moralizing. They derisively called him “Papa” (Pope) instead of “Pepe”.
Rizal Criticizes Madrid Filipinos for Gambling
Early in August, 1890 – Rizal arrived in Madrid
•He tried all legal means to seek justice for his family and the calamba tenants, but to no avail.
•He almost fought to duels – one with Antonio Luna and the other to Wenceslao E. Retana.
•Leonor Rivera married a British Engineer.
Failure to Get Justice for family
Upon arrival in Madrid, Rizal immediately sought the help of the Filipino Colony, the Asociacion Hispano – Filipina, and the Liberal Spanish newspapers (La Justicia, El Globo, La Republica, El resumen).
RIZAL IN MADRID
End of August, 1890 – Rizal attended a social reunion of the Filipinos in Madrid.
•Wine was served in the reunion.
•After drinking so many glasses, the guests became more loquacious.
•Antonio Luna became drunk.
•Luna was bitter because of his frustrated romance with Nellie Boustead
•He was blaming Rizal for his failure.
•Luna uttered certain unsavory remarks for Nellie.
•Rizal heard him and challenge for a duel.
•The Filipinos were shocked of the incident.
•They tried to pacify Rizal and Luna, pointing out to both that such a duel would damage their cause in Spain.
•Luna, when he became sober, realized that he had made a fool and he apologized to Rizal
Aborted Duel with Antonio Luna
January 28, 1890 –
Rizal left Paris for Brussels
The cost of living in Paris was very high because of the Universal Exposition.
The gay social life of the city hampered his literary works, especially the writing of his second novel El Filibusterismo.
Two reasons why Rizal leave Paris:
Brussels– capital of Belgium.
Jose Albert – accompanied Rizal to move to Brussels.
Jose Alejandro – an engineering student who replaced Jose Albert.
•Rizal was busy writing his second novel.
He wrote articles for La Solidaridad and letters for his family and friends.
•He spent part of his time in medical clinic.
•He had gymnastics at the gymnasium and target practice and fencing at the armory.
Articles Published in La Solidaridad
1.“A La Defensa” (To La Defensa), April 30, 1889.
2.“La verdad Para Todos” ( The Truth For All), May 31, 1889.
3.“Vicente Barrantes’ TeatroTagalo,” June 15, 18889
4.“UnaProfanacion” (A Profanation), July 31, 1889
5.“VerdadesNuevas” (New Truths), July 31, 1889
6.“Crueldad” (Cruelty), August 15, 1889
7.“Differencias” (Differences), September 15, 1889
8.“Inconsequencias” (Inconsequences), November 30, 1889
9.“Llanto y Risas” (Tears and Laughters), November 30, 1889
10.“Ingratitudes” (Ingratitude), January 15, 1890
New Orthography of Tagalog Language
Rizal was the first to advocate the Filipinization of its orthography. For instance, the Tagalog letters k and w should be used instead of the Spanish c and o.
salacot – salakot
arao – araw
Early in September, 1886 – while in Leipzig, Rizal adopted the Filipinized Tagalog orthography in his Tagalog translations of Schiller’s Wilhelm Tell and Andersen’s Fairy Tales and again he used it in his first novel Noli Me Tangere(Berlin, 1887)
“Sobre la Nueva Ortografia de la LenguaTagala” (The new Orthography of the Tagalog Language) – article of Rizal and was published in La Solidaridad.
Dr. Trnidad H. Pardo de Tavera – author of the celebrated work El Sancristo en la LenguaTagala (Sankrist in the Tagalog Language) which was published in Paris, 1884.
•The Calamba agrarian trouble was getting worst.
•The management of the Dominican hacienda continually raised the land rents.
•The Dominican order filled a suit in court to dispossess the Rizal Family of their lands in Calamba.
•The tenants were persecuted.
•Paciano, Antonio Lopez and Silvestre Ubaldo were deported to Mindoro.
•Manuel T. Hidalgo – was banished to Bohol for the second time.
BAD NEWS FROM HOME
Preparation to Go Home
Rizal planned to go home. He could not stay in Brussels writing a book while his parents, relatives and friends in the distant Philippines were persecuted.
July 9, 1890 – upon hearing that Graciano Lopez Jaena was planning to go to Cuba, Rizal wrote to Ponce to oppose the plan of action of Graciano.
July 18, 1890 – he wrote another letter to Ponce in which he expresses his determination to go home.
All his friends, including Blumentritt, Jose Ma.Basa, and Ponce, were horrified by Rizal’s to return to the Philippines. They warned him of the danger that awaited him at home.
July 29, 1890 – he wrote a letter to Ponce announcing that he was leaving Brussels at the beginning of the following month and would arrive Madrid about the 3rd and 4th of August.
To My Muse “A Mi…” – he wrote this poem which was against the a background of mental anguish in Brussels, during those sad days when he was worried by family disasters.
Decision to go to Madrid
Something happened that made Rizal to change his plan in returning to the Philippines when he received a letter from Paciano which related that they lost the case against the Dominicans in Manila but they appealed it to the Supreme Court in Spain.
June 20, 1890 – Rizal wrote to M. H. Del Pilar retaining the latter’s service as a lawyer and informed Del Pilar that he was going to Madrid, in order to supervise the handling of the case.
Romance with Petite Jacoby
Two things brought some measure of cheer to the despondent Rizal as he was preparing for his trip to Madrid:
1.The summertime festival of Belgium, which was celebrated in carnival style.
2.His romance with Petite Jacoby, the pretty niece of his landladies.
•Rizal was so charming and dignified a gentleman the Petite Susanne was attracted to him.
•He was lonely in a strange country and Leonor Rivera was so far away.
•Like other women – SegundaKatigbak, Orang Valenzuela, Leonor Rivera, O-Sei-San, Gettie Beckett, Consuelo Ortiga y Perez and Nellie Boustead – Susanne fell in love with Rizal
M. H. Del Pilar – acted as his lawyer.
Dr. Dominador Gomez – secretary of Asociacion Hispano – Filipina.
More terrible news reached Rizal in Madrid:
•From Silvestre Ubaldo, he received a copy of the ejectment order by the Dominicans against Francisco Rizal and other calamba tenants.
•From Saturnina, he learned of the deportation of Paciano, Antonio Lopez, Silvestre Ubaldo, Teong, and Dandoy to Mindoro
•His parents were forcibly ejected from their home and were then living in the house of Narcisa.
Rizal’s Eulogy to Panganiban
Jose Ma. Panganiban – his friend and his talented co-worker in the propaganda.
August 19, 1890 – date of the death of Jose Ma. Panganiban because of a lingering illness.
On another occasion, he challenged another man to duel – Wenceslao E. Retana.
– The bitter enemy of Rizal in Pen.
– A talented Spanish scholar was then a press agent of the friars in Spain.
– Used to attack the Filipinos, including Rizal, in various newspapers in Madrid.
– He imprudently wrote an article in La Epoca an anti-Filipino newspaper in Madrid, asserting that the family and friends of Rizal had not paid their rents so that they were ejected from their lands in Calamba by the Dominicans.
•Such an insult stirred Rizal to action.
•Immediately, he sent his seconds to Retana with his challenge to a duel.
•Retana at once published a retraction and apology in the newspapers.
•The incident silenced Retana’s pen against Rizal.
•Years afterward, Retana wrote the first book-length biography of the greatest Filipino hero, whose talents he came to recognize and whose martyrdom he glorified.
Infidelity of Leonor Rivera – Rizal lost his gold watch chain with a locket containing the picture of Leonor Rivera, his beloved sweetheart while he attended a play in the Teatro Apollo together with his friends, and that incident proved to be a bad omen.
December, 1890 – Rizal received a letter from Leonor, announcing her coming married with an Englishman.
February 15, 1891 – Blumentritt replied to the letter of Rizal and comforted Rizal when Rizal confide to him about his agony and broken heart.
Rizal-Del Pilar Rivalry – In 1890, there arise an unfortunate rivalry between Rizal and delPilar for supremacy.
January 1, 1891 (New Year’s Day) – the Filipinos of Madrid met to reorganize the Asociacion Hispano – Filipina and to elect a new leader who would act as a spokesman of the Filipino cause in Europe.
Filipinos were divided into two rival camps:
• Rizalistas or Rizal’s friends
• Pilaristas or delPilar’s friends
Rizalistas – worked hard for the election of Rizal.
Pilaristas – fought for delPilar’s election
Back to Brussels – Since Rizal walked out from the election for the new leader because he found out that only 19 people voted him, he go back to Brussels.
February, 1891 – he left Madrid and proceeded to Biarritz, where he was a welcomed guest of the Bousted at their Villa Eliada.
Valentin Ventura – Rizal’s friend and companion in Paris, where Rizal staying with him.
April 4, 1891 – He wrote to Jose Ma. Basa, expressing his wish to live in Hongkong and practice medicine.
Middle of April 1891 – Rizal turned to Brussels for one reason, to finish his second novel.
Antonio Luna, who had previously loved and lost Nelly,encouragedRizal to woo and marry her. From Madrid, he wrote to Rizal, saying:
With respect to Nelly, frankly, I think there is nothing betweenus more than one of those friendships enlivened by being fellowcountrymen. If seems to me that there is nothing more. My word ofhonor.
I had been her fiancé, we wrote to each other. I like herbecauseI knew how worthy she was, but circumstances beyond our control madeall that happiness one cherished evaporate.
She is good; she is naturally endowed with qualities admirableina young woman and I believe that she will bring happiness not onlytoyou but to any other man who is worthy of her ... I congratulate youas one congratulates a friend. Congratulations!
An idealized Castillan-looking self portrait of Juan Luna.Filipinos often glamourizes their native Malayan features.
With the encouragement of his close friends, Rizal courted Nellywho, in turn, reciprocated hisaffection. Unfortunately, their romancebeneath the lovely Biarritz moon did not have a happy fairy talefinale. Rizal's marriage proposal failed for two reasons:
(1) he refused to give up his Catholic faith and be converted toProtestantism, as Nelly demanded, and (2) Nelly's mother did not like Rizal as a son-in-law.Nelly Boustead, being a good Protestant, wanted Rizal to espouseProtestantism before their marriage. Rizal, being a man of firmconviction, refused. Although he became a Mason, he remained loyaltothe Catholic religion, the faith of his clan.
Years later, when he was living in exile in Dapitan, he refutedFather Pablo Pastells' accusation that he was a Protestant asfollows:
"As to being a Protestant ... If Your Reverence only; knew whatIhad lost for not accepting Protestantism, you would not say such athing. Had I not always respected the religious idea, had I heldreligion as a matter of convenience or an art getting along in thislife, instead of being a poor exile, I would now be a rich man,free,and covered with honors."
Nelly's mother, like the mother of Leonor Rivera, had no wish toentrust her daughter's happiness to a man who was poor in materialthings, a physician without a paying clientele, a writer who earnednothing from his pen, and a reformer who was persecuted by thefriarsand government officials in his own country.
Although they could not get married, Rizal and Nellie parted asgood friends. When she learned that Rizal was leaving Europe, shesenthim a farewell letter, saying:
"Now that you are leaving I wish you a happy trip and may youtriumph in your undertakings, and above all, may the Lord look downonyou with favor and guide your way giving you much blessings, and mayyou learn to enjoy! My remembrance will accompany you as also myprayers."
Biarritz, with its romantic gardens, delightful villas, andpanoramic beauties, is an ideal setting for romance. On an emotionalrebounce, Rizal having lost his beloved Leonor came to entertainconsiderable affection for Nellie, the prettier and younger daughterof his host.
(Eduardo Boustead was the son of the rich British trader,EdwardBoustead, who went to the Orient in 1826. He established Commercialfirms in Singapore and Manila, became wealthy, and married a prettydaughter of the rich Genato family in Manila. Later he brought hisfamily (wife and two pretty daughters (Adelina and Nelly) to Europe.He and his family lived in luxury in Paris and Biarritz. He gave histwo daughters (who were Anglo-Filipino mestizas) a fine Europeaneducation.)
He found her to be a real Filipina, highly intelligent, vivacious intemperament, and morally upright. He wrote to his intimatefriends, except Professor Blumentritt, of his love for Nellie, alsocalled Nelly, and his intention to propose marriage to her.
As early as on February 4, 1891, M.H. delPilar teased himabout changing the "o" in Noli to an "e", which means Noli to Nelly.
Five days later, Tomas Arejola told Rizal:
In your letter you talk repeatedly of Boustead who can be aMadameor a mademoiselle. Several times here since last year I have beentoldabout this young woman who, according to your letter is also aFilipino. They told me that she is highly commendable for herthorougheducation, her very beautiful moral and physical qualities, and inaddition, for being a Filipino.
On this occasion and all the time you are there exposed to thewarmth of the treatment and attentions of that family, may I taketheliberty for making the following reflections. Through you yourself,
Iknow that you are now free from your engagement in the Philippines.
On the other hand, while conditions there are not altered, yourpermanence in our country is not advisable; and even if it were so,they would never leave you in peace at your home.
Consequently, by marrying there, I fear that instead ofhappiness,you would only find bitterness and trouble. And what is theremedy? .. . See if Mademoiselle Boustead suits you, court her, and marry
her, and we are here to applaud such a good act.
Rizal left Brussels for Ghent, a famous university city in Belgium
July 5, 1891
September 18, 1891
The printing of his book had to be suspended because Rizal could no longer give the necessary funds to the printer
- El Filibusterismo came off the press
-Rizal immediately sent on this date two printed copies to Hong Kong—one for Basa and other for Sixto Lopez
•Rizal gratefully donated the original manuscript and an autographed printed copy to Valentin Ventura
August 6, 1891
EL FILIBUSTERISMO PUBLISHED IN GHENT (1891)
-Rizal was busy revising and polishing the manuscript of El Filibusterismo so that it could be ready for the press
-Rizal had begun writing it in October, 1887, while practicing medicine in Calamba, the following year (1888), in London; he made some changes in the plot and corrected some chapters already written. He wrote more chapters in Paris and Madrid, and finished the manuscript in Biarritz on March 29, 1891. It took him, therefore, three years to write his second novel
Rizal reasons for moving to Ghent were:
(1) the cost of printing in Ghent was cheaper than in Brussels
(2) to escape from the enticing attraction of Petite Suzanne
•Rizal met two compatriots while in Ghent:
Jose Alejandro (from Pampanga) and Edilberto Evangelista (from Manila), both studying engineering in the world-famed University of Ghent
•F. Meyer-Van Loo Press (No. 66 Viaanderen Street)-a printing shop that give Rizal the lowest quotation for the publication of his novel, who was willing to print his book on installment basis
- the savior of the Fili
-When Ventura learned of Rizal’s predicament and immediately sent him the necessary funds
- a Barcelona newspaper, wherein it published a tribute eulogizing the novel’s original style which “is comparable only to the sublime Alexander Dumas” and may well be offered as “a model and a precious jewel in the now decadent literature of Spain”
•El Nuevo Regimen
- the liberal Madrid newspaper that serialized the novel in its issues of October, 1891
Rizal dedicated El Filibusterismo to Gom-Bur-Za (Don Mariano Gomez, 73 years old; Don Jose Burgos, 35 years old; Jacinto Zamora, 37 years old)
•The original manuscript of El Filibusterismo in Rizal’s own handwriting in now preserved in the Filipiana Division of the Bureau of Public Libraries, Manila. It consists of 270 pages of long sheets of paper
•Two features in the manuscript do not appear in the printed book, namely: the FOREWORD and the WARNING. These were not put into print to save printing cost
•The title page of El Filibusterismo contains an inscription written by Ferdinand Blumentritt
•El Filibusterismo is a sequel to the Noli. It has little humor, less idealism and less romance than the Noli Me Tangere. It is more revolutionary, more tragic than the first novel
•The characters in El Filibusterismo were drawn by Rizal from real life. Padre Florentino was Father Leoncio Lopez, Rizal’s friend and priest of Calamba; Isagani, the poet was Vicente Ilustre, Batangueño friend of Rizal in Madrid and Paulita Gomez, the girl who loved Isagani but married Juanito Pelaez, was Leonor Rivera
•The original intention of Rizal was to make the Fili longer than the Noli
•The friends of Rizal and our Rizalistas today differ in opinion as to which is the superior novel—the Noli or the Fili. Rizal himself considered the Noli as superior to the Fili as a novel, thereby agreeing with M.H. del Pilar who had the same opinion
•September 22, 1891-four days after the Fili came off the press, Rizal wrote to Blumentritt: “I am thinking of writing a third novel, a novel in the modern sense of the word, but this time politics will not find much space in it, but ethics will play the principal role.”
•October 18, 1891- Rizal boarded the steamer Melbourne in Marseilles bound for Hong Kong
-during the voyage, Rizal began writing the third novel in Tagalog, which he intended for Tagalog readers
•The unfinished novel has no title. It consists of 44 pages (33cm x 21 cm) in Rizal’s handwriting, still in manuscript form, it is preserved in the National Library, Manila
-The story of this unfinished novel begins with the solemn burial of Prince Tagulima. The hero of the novel was Kamandagan, a descendant of Lakan-Dula, last king of Tondo
-It is said that Rizal was fortunate not to have finsihed this novel, because it would have caused greater scandal and more Spanish vengeance on him
•Makamisa- other unfinished novel of Rizal in Tagalog written in a light sarcastic style and is incomplete for only two chapters are finished. The manuscript consists of 20 pages, 34.2cm x 22cm
•Dapitan-another novel which Rizal started to write but it is unfinished, written in ironic Spanish. He wrote it during his exile in Dapitan to depict the town life and customs. The manuscript consists of 8 pages, 23cm x 16cm
•A novel in Spanish about the life in Pili, a town in Laguna, is also unfinished. The manuscript consists of 147 pages, 8” x 6.5”, without title
•Another unfinished novel of Rizal, also without title is about Cristobal, a youthful Filipino student who has returned from Europe. The manuscript consist of 34 pages, 8 ½” x 6 ¼”
•The beginnings of another novel are contained in two notebooks—the first notebook contains 31 written pages, 35.5 cm x 22 cm and second 12 written pages, 22cm x 17cm. this unfinished novel is written in Spanish and style is ironic
two weeks after the publication of Fili, Rizal left Ghent for Paris, where he stayed a few days to say goodbye to the Lunas, the Pardo de Taveras, the Venturas and other friends; Rizal proceeded by train to Marseilles
October 3, 1891
November 20, 1891
Rizal boarded the steamer Melbournebound for Hong Kong
Rizal arrived in Hong Kong
October 18, 1891
Rizal wrote his parents asking their permission to return home.
-On the same date, his brother-in-law, Manuel T. Hidalgo, sent him a letter relating the sad news of the “deportation of twenty-five persons from Calamba, including father, Neneng, Sisa, Lucia, Paciano and the rest of us.”
•The Christmas of 1891 in Hong Kong was one of the happiest Yuletide celebrations in Rizal’s life: For he had a happy family reunion
December 1, 1891
Rizal wrote to Blumentritt, recounting pleasant life in Hong Kong
•To earn a living for himself and for his family, Rizal practiced medicine
January 31, 1892
OPHTHALMIC SURGEON IN HONG KONG (1891-1892)
-Rizal left Europe for Hong Kong, where he lived from November, 1891 to June, 1892. His reasons for leaving Europe were (1) life was unbearable in Europe because of his political differences with M.H. del Pilar and other Filipinos in Spain (2) to be near his idolized Philippines and family
•Father Fuchs- a Tyrolese, Rizal enjoyed playing chess. Rizal describe him to Blumentritt as “He is a fine fellow, A Father Damaso without pride and malice”
•Rizal established his residence at No. 5 D’ Aguilar Street No. 2 Rednaxola Terrace, where he also opened his medical clinic
•Dr. Lorenzo P. Marques- a Portuguese physician, who became Rizal’s friend and admirer, who helped him to build up a wide clientele. In recognition of Rizal’s skill as an ophthalmic surgeon, he turned over to him many of his eye cases
Rizal successfully operated on his mother’s left eye so that she was able to read and write again.
BORNEO COLONIZATION PROJECT
Rizal went to Sandakan on board the ship Menon to negotiate with the British authorities for the establishment of a Filipino colony
• Rizal looked over the land up the BengkokaRiver in MaraduBay which was offered by the British North Borneo Company
April 20, 1892
Rizal was back in Hong Kong
•Hidalgo- Rizal’s brother-in-law, objected to the colonization project
first letter of Rizal to Governor Despujol
December 23, 1891
March 21, 1892
March 7, 1892
Rizal planned to move the landless Filipino families Filipino families to North Borneo (Sabah), rich British-owned island and carve out of its virgin wildness a “New Calamba”
•Governor Valeriano Weyler- Cubans odiously called “The Butcher”
•Governor Eulogio Despujol- the Count of Caspe, a new governor general after Weyler
Rizal’s second letter and gave it to a ship captain to be sure it would reach Governor Despujol’s hand
-in this second letter, he requested the governor general to permit the landless Filipinos to establish themselves in Borneo
•Despujol could not approve the Filipino immigration to Borneo, alleging that “the Philippines lacked laborers” and “it was not very patriotic to go off and cultivate foreign soil.”
WRITINGS IN HONG KONG
•“Ang Mga Karapatan Nang Tao- which is a Tagalog translation of “The Rights of Man” proclaimed by the French Revolution in 1789
•“A la Nacion Española” (To the Spanish Nation)- Rizal wrote in 1891, which is an appeal to Spain to right the wrongs done to the Calamba tenants
•“Sa Mga Kababayan” (To my Countrymen)- another proclamation written in December, 1891 explaining the Calamba agrarian situation
•The Hong Kong Telegraph- a British daily newspaper whose editor is Mr. Frazier Smith, a friend of Rizal
-Rizal contributed articles to this newspaper
•“Una Visita a la Victoria Gaol” (A Visit to Victoria Gaol)- Rizal wrote on March 2, 1892, an account of his visit to the colonial prison of Hong Kong
-in this article, Rizal contrasted the cruel Spanish prison system with the modern and more humane British prison system
•“Colonisation du British North Borneo, par de Familles de Iles Philippines” (Colonization of British North Borneo by Families from the Philippine Islands)- an article in French which Rizal elaborated on the same idea in aonther article in Spanish, “Proyecto de Colonizacion del British North Borneo por los Filipinos” (Project of the Colonization of British North Borneo by the Filipinos)
•“La Mano Roja” (The Red Hand)- Rizal wrote in June, 1892, which was printed in sheet form in Hong Kong
-it denounces the frequent outbreaks of intentional fires in Manila
•Constitution of La Liga Filipina- the most important writing made by Rizal during his Hong Kong sojourn, which was printed in Hong Kong, 1892
-to deceive the Spanish authorities, the printed copies carried the false information that the printing was done by the LONDON PRINTING PRESS
•Domingo Franco-a friend of Rizal in Manila whom the copies of the printed Liga constitution were sent
DECISION TO RETURN TO MANILA
Rizal made up his mind to return to Manila.
June 21, 1892
Rizal wrote two letters which he sealed, inscribed on each envelope “to be opened after my death” and gave them to his friend Dr. Marques for safekeeping
•The first letter, addressed TO MY PARENTS, BRETHREN, AND FRIENDS. The second letter, addressed TO THE FILIPINOS
Rizal penned another letter in Hong Kong for Governor Despujol, incidentally his third letter to that discourteous Spanish chief executive
•Immediately after Rizal’s departure from Hong Kong, the Spanish consul general who issued the government guarantee of safety, sent a cablegram to Governor Despujol that the victim “is in the trap”. On the same day (June 21, 1892), a secret case was filed in Manila against Rizal and his followers “for anti-religious and anti-patriotic agitation”
June 20, 1892
•This decision was spurred by the following: (1) to confer with Governor Despujol regarding his Borneo colonization project (2) to establish the La Liga Filipina in Manila (3) to prove that Eduardo de Lete was wrong in attacking him in Madrid that he (Rizal), being comfortable and safe in Hong Kong, had abandoned the country’s cause
•Lete’s attack, which was printed in La Solidaridad on April 15, 1892, portrayed Rizal as cowardly, egoistic, opportunistic—a patriot in words only
Luis de la Torre- secretary of Despujol, ordered to find out if Rizal was naturalized as a German citizen