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Transcript of Cognitive Development
The two developmental periods- Childhood and maturation.
Childhood - between birth and adolescence Jean Piaget's Theories of Cognitive Development 2-7 7-12 0-2 Sensorymotor Stage Substage 1 (Birth to 1 Month): Reflexive Activity Substage 2(1-4 Months): Primary Circular Reactions Substage 3(4-8 Months): Secondary Circular Reactions Substage 5(12-18 Months): Tertiary Circular Reactions
Building knowledge through reflexes (grasping, sucking)
No attempt to locate objects that have disappeared Reflexes are organized into larger, integrated behaviors(grasping a rattle and bringing it to the mouth to suck)
Still no attempt to locate objects that have disappeared. Preoperational Stage Development of Symbolic representations, that is, the use of one object to stand for another Characteristic Errors Concrete Operational Stage Exemplified by the conversation concept Repetition of actions on the environment that bring out pleasing or interesting results (banging a rattle).
Search for objects that have dropped from view or are partially hidden Substage 4(8-12 Months): Coordination of Secondary Reactions Mentally representing objects when objects can no longer be seen, thus achieving ""object permanence".
Search for completely hidden objects but make "A not B error". Actively and avidly exploring the possible uses to which object can be put.
Ability to follow visible displacements of an object. Substage 6(18-24 Months): Symbolic Thought Able to form enduring mental representations as demonstrated by "deferred imitation" the repetition of others' behaviors minutes, hours, or days after it has occurred.
Ability to follow invisible displacements. The extension from birth to the attainment of language Use of Symbolism to represent objects and events. For instance, a stick becomes a horse; an eye patch and kerchief make a pirate. Egocentrism: Looking at the world only from one's own point of view Centration: Focusing on a single, perceptual feature to the exclusion of other features. Vygotsky's theory Scaffolding Zone of Proximal Development Difference Between Piaget and Vygotsky's Perspectives: Thinking developes depending
on natural maturation Development of thinking
is dependent upon language
and culture Piaget Main Principle's
Children construct their own Knowledge
The learning is mediated
Language plays a central role in mental development Development can not be seperated from its social context Learning appears twice Role of an adult in Supporting the learner's development and providing a support structure to get to the next Stage or level The Difference between what a child can do independently and what the child needs help from a more knowledgeable person to do is the Zone of Proximal Development. Vygotsky Readiness is a central
concept in education-children
need to be ready to progress in their learning Children should be actively incourage to move through ZPD Scaffolding not a key concept Both agree
knowledge Language reflects of
cognitive development Language helps to develop cognitive abilities Scaffolding is a central concept Allows a learner to accomplish tasks otherwise impossible Used only when Needed This theory was very influential in education but needs revising This theory is still very
influential in education Role of teacher important but use of "more-expert other" not
central Use of "more-expert other" seen as fundamental part of cognitive development Nature vs Nurture Both nature and nurture interact to produce cognitive development Nature Nurture Maturation of Brain and Body
Ability to perceive, learn and act
motivation Adaption: Children respond to the demand of environment in ways that meet their own goals.
Organization: Children integrate particular observations into a body of coherent knowledge. and underestimation of children's abilities still a problem Debates children's thinking is affected by social interactions children process is a computational process Piaget understates the social component of cognitive development Criticism of Piaget's theory infants and young children have and use a lot of innate mental machinery for complex abstract thought Constructivism (learning theory). Retrieved on 28/08/2010 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_development
Baron, Robert A. (2001). PSYCHOLOGY. PEARSON, 5th Edition, p284-327. faculty.psy.ohio-state.edu/opfer/lab/courses/845.../845Theories.pdfdrbalakidd.files.wordpress.com/2010/11/sociocultural_theory.ppt References Criticism Of Vygotsky's Theory Vygotsky's experiment offers only the outline of cognitive development His theory does not provide the kind of tools required for specific research Attainment of a better understanding of mental operation thereby enabling logical thinking regarding concrete events but show difficulty in understanding abstract or hypothetical concepts. Children understand the conservation concept when they understand that changing the appearance or arrangement of objects does not change their key properties. Formal Operational Stage Pendulum Problem The development of abilities to think about abstract concepts to an extent of logical thought, deductive reasoning, and systematic planning. What influences how long it will take for the pendulum to complete an arc 12-Adult Provides Support
Extends the Range of What a Learner can do Conclusion