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Transcript of Protestant Reformation
The Catholic Church taught that a person could be released from punishment from their sin by paying a certain price. This was known as indulgence.
Another way to obtain salvation was through the Modern Devotion, which stressed the need to follow the teachings of Jesus.
The priests and other clergy did not teach the Modern Devotion, which led to people looking outside the Church for religious leadership.
He was a monk and professor at the University of Wittenberg in Germany.
Politics of the Reformation
Luther's movement was closely tied to political affairs.
The Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V wanted to keep his empire Catholic.
Because of the support of the Lutheran church from both France and Germany, Charles was unable to keep the entire empire Catholic.
The Peace of Augsburg agreement of 1555 formally accepted the division of Christianity in Germany. The German states were now free to choose between Lutheranism and Catholicism.
However, this did not allow each individual person to choose their own religion.
The Ninety-five Theses
Martin Luther presented a list of Ninety-five Theses that objected to the Church practice of indulgences.
This publication was the turning point that began the Protestant Reformation.
Luther was greatly upset by the Church officials who would sell indulgences, and in fact believed that the people were harming their chance for salvation by buying indulgences.
On October 31, 1517, Luther sent his list of Ninety-five Theses to his Church Superiors.
Thousands of copies were printed and spread to all parts of Germany.
By: Sarah Brailey, Brittany Dixon, and Mackenzie Suddath
Early Reformation Movement
Christian Humanists were part of a movement whose major goal was to reform the Catholic Church.
They believed that human beings could improve themselves to become closer to God.
They encouraged people to read the classics and to live good lives on a daily basis.
They thought that in order to change society, they must first change the human beings that make it up.
The best known out of all the Christian Humanists.
He believed that Christianity should not be a system of beliefs that people have to practice to be saved.
He stressed the inner peace that a person receives from being religious.
He felt that pilgrimages, fasts, and other practices were not necessary.
His goal was to spread the philosophy of Christ, provide education about Christianity, and stop the abuses in the Church.
Corruption in the Catholic Church
The cause to reform was due to the corruption in the Catholic Church.
The popes from 1450-1520 failed to meet the Church's spiritual needs and were instead more concerned with politics and other worldly matters.
Pope Julius II even led armies against his enemies.
Many Church officials used their positions to advance their careers and gain wealth.
Priests were not educated in their spiritual duties and were unable to offer the people of their perishes any advice or leadership.
His Religious Movement
Luther's religious movement gained support of many German rulers, who began forming state churches.
Luther set up religious services to replace the mass.
The new church become known as a Lutheran church and was the first protestant church.
Luther's Break with the Church
By 1520, Luther asked the German government to establish a reformed German Church.
He attacked the Church's system of sacraments and kept only two, baptism and communion.
Luther went against the long-standing Catholic requirement that the clergy remained unmarried.
The Church excommunicated him in January, 1521.
Martin Luther was made an outlaw and his work was to be burned.
He went into hiding and was protected when he returned to Wittenberg.
His View of Salvation
Catholic teaching stressed that both faith and good works were needed to gain salvation.
Luther believed that humans are not saved through their good works, but their faith in God alone.
He believed that God will grant salvation because God is merciful and God's grace cannot be earned by performing good works.
The idea of being saved by faith alone became the chief teaching of the Protestant Reformation.
Because Luther came to this understanding of salvation through his study in the Bible, the Bible became the only source of religious truth for Protestants.
With the Peace of Augsburg agreement, the idea of a unified Christian church was lost forever.
Division of Protestantism was being seen as well.
Ulrich Zwingli began a movement in Switzerland and sought an alliance with Martin Luther, but they could not agree on the meaning of communion.
After Zwingli was killed, John Calvin took over as the leader of Protestantism in Switzerland.
John was first educated in his native France, but was forced to flee to Switzerland after converting to Protestantism.
After publishing the
Institutes of the Christian Religion,
Calvin became known as one of the new leaders of Protestantism.
Like Luther, he believed that humans achieved salvation by faith alone.
He also believed in the all-powerful nature of God, which led him to the idea of predestination. This idea means that God has determined in advance who should be saved and who should not.
By the mid-sixteenth century Calvinism had replaced Lutheranism as the most important form of Protestantism.
The Role of Women
Since Protestantism had eliminated the idea that priests could not marry, the family could now be placed at the center of human life.
Luther still believed that the husband was the ruler and that the wife was the obedient servant whose chief duty was to please her husband.
A woman's other important duty would be to bear children. To Calvin and Luther, this function was part of the divine plan. Family life was the only destiny for most Protestant women.
The Protestant Reformation did not change women's subordinate place in society.
The Catholic Reformation
With the rise of Lutheranism and Calvinism in Europe, the situation was not looking good for the Catholic church.
The Catholic church had a revitalization in the sixteenth century giving it new strength.
Pope Paul III appointed a reform commission 1537 to determine the problems in the Church.
The reform commission still determined that both faith and good works were needed for salvation and that priests should remained unmarried. Belief in the use of indulgences was upheld, however, the selling of indulgences was forbidden.
After the Catholic Reformation, they had a renewed spirit of confidence and were prepared to do battle for their faith.
What is it?
The Protestant Reformation was the 16th century religious, political, intellectual and cultural upheaval that splintered Catholic Europe, setting in place the structures and beliefs that would define the continent in the modern era.
His Early Life
He was born on November 10, 1483 in Eisleben, Saxony.
He was baptized as a Catholic.
His father was Hans Luder and he worked as a leaseholder of copper mines and smelters.
His mother was Margarthe and she was a hardworking woman of trading class stock.
He had several brothers and sisters and was known to have been close to his brother, Jacob.
Martin Luther attended Latin schools in Mansfeld, where he learned grammar, rhetoric, and logic.
The Power of the Roman Catholic Church
The Roman Catholic Church was powerful due to the ignorance and superstition of the people.
The people believed they could only get to heaven via the Church.
The people would view their local priest as their passport to heaven, so they worked to keep their priest happy.
The people were expected to pay tithes, which were a tenth of their annual income, as well as fees for baptizing their children, getting married, and burying someone.
They were also expected to work on the Church land for free for a specified number of days per week.