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Battle of Stalingrad

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Hannah Nelson

on 18 April 2014

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Transcript of Battle of Stalingrad

Battle of Stalingrad
Colin Schultz, Hannah Nelson, Andy Rubritz, Madison Shaw
People of the Battle
Russian General V. I. Chuikov commanded main defense squad around the city.
Russian Marshal Georgii K. Zhukov ran the counter offensive to completely surround the Germans.
German Air Marshal Hermann Goring tried to resupply the entrapped Germans but ultimately failed.
German General Friedrich Paulus was surrounded by Russian forces around Stalingrad.
Paulus surrendered on February 2nd, 1943 with 150,000 dead soldiers over half of his men
Started June 22, 1941
Major battle of WWll
Between Nazi Germany and Soviet Union
Hitler ordered the attack
Wanted control over city of Stalingrad
Wanted city because of its large industrial field
City could function as a transportation route
Known as "the turning point", of WWll
Causes of Battle of Stalingrad
Adolf Hitler
Rivals with Joseph Stalin
Wanted it for transportation route
Stop Germans from invading Soviet Union
Stalingrad
Effects of Battle of Stalingrad
Lasted 199 days
Halted German movement into Soviet Union
Over 2 million dead
Sequence of Events
Air Attack

"Red Air Force"
June 22, 1941, German Bombers, and Dive Bombers struck Soviet Airfields
Soviet Pilots reacted even though their planes were outdated
Lost 1,200 planes in one day
German air force was to strong for Soviet at first
Soviet Pilots did their best to protect there comrades on the ground
Weapons of the Battle
M1 Garand- first semi automatic rifle used in war, weighed about 10 pounds

MG42- At the time the fastest firing machine gun at 1200 rounds a minute.

SG44- One of the first true assault rifle. Offered quick rate if fire but with power at long distances as well.

Colt M1911- .45 Caliber pistol, Standard issue United States Military pistol from 1911 to 1985, semi automatic.

Bazooka- one of the first and most effective anti tank weapons developed.
Casualties
The Red Army
Army created by the Soviets in 1917
Called "Red" Army to represent the blood shed during battle
Used in Battle of Stalingrad
Established by the Communist Government
Recruits were peasants and workers
Had up to five million soldiers
Leon Trotsky was the head of the army
Red Army flags were waved throughout the city to show support
German: 750,000 out of 1,000,000 men lost

Soviet: Almost 1,000,000 out of a little over 1.000,000 men lost

Civilian: 4,000 - 40,000



Prisoners
Sent to harsh prison/ work camps

Out of 91,000 Germans captured, only around 5,000 were returned
Posters like these were made to encourage the Soviet Union
Letters from Stalingrad
I took out your picture once again and looked at it for a long time. I remember the experience we shared that lovely summer evening in the last year of peace, when we walked home through the blooming valley towards our house. When we found each other for the first time, only the voice of the heart spoke in us; later it was the voice of love and happiness. We talked about ourselves and about the future which lay before like a many-colored carpet. That carpet is no longer there. The summer evening is no longer there, and neither is the blooming valley. And we are no longer together. Instead of the carpet there is now an endless white field, there is no more summer, but only winter, and there is no future, at least not for me, and consequently not for you either. All this time I had a feeling which I could not explain, but today I know that it was anxiety about you. I felt, despite the distance of many thousands of kilometers, that it was the same with you. When you receive this letter, listen intently to it, perhaps you will hear my voice then. They tell us that our struggle is for Germany. But there are only a few here who believe that this meaningless sacrifice could be of use to our country.
This morning in the division command post, Hannes persuaded me to write you after all. For a whole week I have avoided writing this letter; I kept thinking that uncertainty, painful though it is, still keeps a glimmer of hope alive. I was the same way in thinking about my own fate; every night I went to sleep not knowing how the scales might tip--whether we would get help here or would be destroyed. I didn't even try to come to any final conclusion, to resolve the doubt. Perhaps from cowardice. I might have been killed three times by now, but it would always have been suddenly, without my being prepared. Now things are different; since this morning I know how things stand; and since I feel freer this way, I want you also to be free from apprehension and uncertainty. I was shocked when I saw the map. We are entirely alone, without help from outside. Hitler has left us in the lurch. If the airfield is still in our possession, this letter may still get out. Our position is to the north of the city. The men of my battery have some inkling of it, too, but they don't know it as clearly as I do. So this is what the end looks like. Hannes and I will not surrender; yesterday, after our infantry had retaken a position, I saw saw four men who had been taken prisoner by the Russians. No, we shall not go into captivity. When Stalingrad has fallen, you'll hear and read it. And then you'll know that I shall not come back.
Unfortunately, the Christmas I have to tell about was not beautiful, but we were comfortably warm. Our position is right on the banks of the Volga. We got hold of some rum; it was thin but tasted marvelous. My buddy brought something with him from division headquarters: ham and meatjelly. I suppose he swiped it from the kitchen, but it tasted magnificent, and they have more, else he couldn't have swiped it. Bread is mighty scarce. So we made pancakes: flour, water, salt, and underneath it ham in the pan. The flour wasn't exactly homegrown either. This is the fourth Christmas since the war started, but this time was the saddest of all. We will have to make up for it all when the war is over, and I hope that next year we can celebrate Christmas at home. We have been in Stalingrad for three months now and still have not made any headway. It is rather peaceful here, but on the other side, on the steppes, they are fighting. The fellows there don't have it as good as we do. But that's their bad luck. Perhaps it will be our turn soon, because their losses are heavy. But the best thing is not to think about it. And yet you keep thinking about it; if you haven't anything to do for 24 hours but daydream, your thoughts turn towards home. Did all of you think of me on Christmas Eve? I had such a strange feeling, and it sometimes does happen that you feel it when someone thinks of you.
Well, now you know that I shall never return. Break it to our parents gently. I am deeply shaken and doubt everything. I used to be strong and full of faith; now I am small and without faith. I will never know many of the things that happen here; but the little that I have taken part in is already so much that it chokes me. No one can tell me any longer that the men died with the words "Deutschland" or "Heil Hitler" on their lips. There is plenty of dying, no question of that; but the last word is "mother" or the name of someone dear, or just a cry for help. I have seen hundreds fall and die already, and many belonged to the Hitler Youth as I did; but all of them, if they could still speak, called for help or shouted a name which could not help them anyway. The Führer made a firm promise to bail us out of here; they read it to us and we believed in it firmly. Even now I still believe it, because I have to believe in something. If it is not true, what else could I believe in? I would no longer need spring, summer, or anything that gives pleasure. So leave me my faith, dear Greta; all my life, at least eight years of it, I believed in the Führer and his word. It is terrible how they doubt it, and shameful to listen to what they say without being able to reply, because they have the facts on their side. If what we were promised is not true, then Germany will be lost, for in that case no more promises can be kept. Oh, these doubts, these terrible doubts, if they could only be cleared up soon!
Aug 4, 1942- Germany crosses to Stalingrad
Aug 7, 1942- Germans attack Soviets
Aug 25, 1942- Stalingrad under siege by Germans
Oct 14, 1942- Hitler orders Germans to stop offenses until 1943
Dec 16, 1942- Soviets attack Rostov
Jan 1, 1943-German retreat from Terek
Jan 10, 1943- Soviets unleash thousands of cannons on Germans
Jan 25, 1943- Germans retreat at Armavir and Voronezh
Jan 31, 1943- German General Paulus surrenders south army to Soviets
Feb 2, 1943- German General Paulus surrenders north army to soviets
Feb 2, 1943- Battle of Stalingrad is officially finished

Video Overview of the battle
http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/battle-of-stalingrad/videos
Works Cited
"WW II: Behind Closed Doors." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 01 Apr. 2014.

"World War II: The Battle of Stalingrad." The Battle of Stalingrad. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Apr. 2014.

"Military History Online - Battle of Stalingrad." Military History Online - Battle of Stalingrad: N.P., n.d. Web. 04 Apr. 2014.

"World War 2 Weapons." World War 2. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2014.

"Battle of Stalingrad." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 07 Apr. 2014.

"Battle of Stalingrad Exclusive Videos & Features." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 11 Apr. 2014.






Letters helped soldiers connect with their family, and their former life

They allowed the soldiers to say goodbye and update their loved ones
Full transcript