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Kiowa Six

An education resource that focuses on the mural in the Oklahoma Judicial Center created by Kiowa artists Tsatoke and Asah. Includes lessons in every subject area.

Oklahoma Art in Public Places

on 8 July 2013

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Transcript of Kiowa Six

OKLAHOMA CITY, OKLAHOMA JUDICIAL CENTER ARTISTS MURAL WOVEN BASKET Built in 1930, the granite and limestone building first housed the Oklahoma Historical Society. By 1934, OHS was responsible for taking in all Indian Agency records, and appropriated time, space, and money for their care. Years later, OHS outgrew the space and moved to a newly constructed building. It underwent a renovation and the State Supreme Court and Court of Criminal Appeals moved in from their home in the capitol. A large American Indian art collection is found within the Judicial Center, including original work by the Kiowa Six. The Kiowa Six was a group of American Indian artists active in the 20th century. All six were born in Oklahoma and were of Kiowa heritage. Auchiah, Asah, Smoky, Mopope, and Hokeah attended St. Patrick's Mission School, the longest running Oklahoma Native American school. Those five received formal art training from Sister Mary Olivia Taylor. Field Matron Susie Peters started an art club to give the Kiowas another avenue of artistic development. Peters continued to campaign for their instruction, convincing Oscar Jacobson at the University of Oklahoma to create a special program for the promising Kiowas. He gave them studio space, instruction, and then promoted their work to the point of international acclaim. Several of the Kiowa artists took part in New Deal commissions, including the Judicial Center murals. The six artists are known for their art that celebrates Native American culture, imagery, and symbology. < Kiowa, 1920
Monroe TsaToke

This Kiowa dancer is wearing ceremonial regalia particular to the 1920s-40s, featuring eagle feathers, bells, and a quill crest. This outfit is what one of the Kiowa 6 might have worn to a powwow. This Cheyenne holds a calumet, or ceremonial pipe. These pipes are used to seal covenants or in religious ceremonies. This figure could possibly be High Backed Wolf, part of the first Cheyenne delegation to Washington D.C. 1832 marks the year of the Stokes Commission.

Cheyenne, 1832
Monroe TsaToke
1934 > < Kiowa, 1832
Monroe TsaToke

This figure is likely a Kiowa chief. He holds a shield depicting a family design, and a war club. A buffalo robe is draped over his shoulder. It is possible that this may be a representation of Dohosan, the man responsible for uniting the Kiowa and leading the tribe for over 30 years. These figures represent a traditional Kiowa woman and child at the turn of the 20th century. Cradleboards were still widely in use. 1900 marks the first time Native Americans were included in a U.S. census.

Kiowa, 1900
Monroe TsaToke
1934 > < SHIELDS

The specific symbolism regarding the shields is unknown, but it is possible they had a personal connection to the artist, > < Comanche, 1880
Monroe TsaToke

This figure has been identified to be Quanah Parker, a leader of the Comanche beginning in the 1860s. Parker was an advocate for the Native American Church. His accoutrements underscore this connection. This Osage warrior is wearing typical summer wear of leggings and breechcloth. The artist might have found the inspiration for this figure from George Catlin's work at Fort Gibson. The date refers to a treaty that removed the warring Osage tribe from reservation lands held by other tribes.

Osage, 1839
Monroe TsaToke
1934 > < Choctaw, 1843
Spencer Asah

This man is wearing a Choctaw ball game regulation uniform. Players were barefoot, clad in a breechcloth held up by a beaded belt, a 'tail' made of horsehair and quills, and a 'mane' of horsehair. The 'socks' and 'gloves' are painted on. This 'game' was used to settle disputes within the tribe. Catlin painted a similar figure in 1834.

This figure is the only non-Plains Indian. The Secotan tribe was based in North Carolina, and is thought to be one of the tribes that interacted with the Roanoke colony.

Secotan, 1650
Spencer Asah
1934 > ART An alternative to making a paper basket is to use an existing basket. Lauren simply drew a pattern directly on the basket, then filled it in with paint. After receiving a discarded piece of canvas, Lauren used a stencil to apply watercolor and acrylic paint. The result resembles a painted buffalo hide. You can recreate this effect using magazine pages and acrylics. Cut the craft paper so that you have twelve pieces that measure five feet by one foot. Make a one inch fold along the length, then continue folding it over. The strips should be sturdy. Use a glue gun to secure the last fold. Lay out four strips. Begin weaving strips in an under over pattern to make a tightly woven square. Continue weaving the last four strips up to create the sides of the basket. Use binder clips to hold the pieces in place until you can secure them with hot glue. Trim excess, then weave ends into the basket interior. Secure with glue. Apply painters tape in a geometric design. Remove tape once paint is dry. ART GEORGE CATLIN George Catlin is known for his Native American portraiture. His work possibly inspired several panels of the Judicial Center mural. Smithsonian's Campfire Stories with George Catlin Learn more about Catlin's life, his intentions in choosing American Indian subjects, and about the tribes he interacted with. http://bit.ly/Vzerv4 http://bit.ly/UIaIZZ George Catlin
Wash-ím-pe-shee, Madman, a Distinguished Warrior,
Smithsonian American Art Museum George Catlin
Tul-lock-chísh-ko, Drinks the Juice of the Stone, in Ball-player's Dress,
Smithsonian American Art Museum http://bit.ly/RExUt9 George Catlin
Né-hee-ó-ee-wóo-tis, Wolf on the Hill, Chief of the Tribe
Smithsonian American Art Museum http://bit.ly/Vzerv4 back to the mural Why do you think the artists chose figures that had first been represented by Catlin?

How did their versions differ from Catlin's?
-What statement does that make? MUSIC AMERICAN INDIAN MUSIC Music is an essential part of Native American culture. Tribes use songs for sacred or ceremonial purposes, to tell a story, or to celebrate events like harvest or historic battles. Most Plains Indian tribes utilize vocalization and drums, sometimes adding flutes or whistles. There is usually a leader who begins the song; the rest of the group comes in after, with a repetition of the first line. Many songs are not written with real words, but use 'vocables,' or non-literal syllables. A grouping of vocables, like 'he-e ye-e yo' signifies to the singers and dancers that the song is coming to an end. Dancers must stop on the last beat of the song, though sometimes a leader might try to throw them off by using uncommon ending signals. Read more about music here: http://bit.ly/TKgwBq PowWow Radio Listen to recordings of Native American songs.
Try to identify what the song is about.
How does the music vary from tribe to tribe? back to the mural Not much is known about the 1920 Kiowa Dancer painted by TsaToke. Look into the history of the Plains Indians tribes in Oklahoma from 1890-1930. Use your research and what you know about Native American music to fill in this scene and complete the story. http://bit.ly/THR1BA SOCIAL STUDIES PERSPECTIVES "Anthropology does not simply record indigenous people; it constructs them." -Mick Gidly, Edward S. Curtis (1868-1952) and The North American Indian 1 2 3 -How have textbooks and traditional history courses contributed to stereotypes surrounding Native Americans? Read this article by TeachingHistory.org http://bit.ly/YVoWtq -Study up on the Treaty and Removal era, which will provide context for the following section. Be wary of stereotypes and bias.
-Contrasting Primary Sources: A lesson by Ronald Levine.

-We Shall Remain: Series by PBS. http://bit.ly/QNukeM http://to.pbs.org/Xzxiqv -Edward Curtis was a photographer known for his work documenting Native American tribes across the country. Curtis operated on the common belief that the American Indian was a disappearing race. While some herald his collection for thoroughly cataloging Native American culture, others criticize Curtis for posing events for his own purposes, rather than documenting actual occurrences. First, read several articles that offer different perspectives of Curtis' work. Then, view his collection here. http://1.usa.gov/XzyHNE http://1.usa.gov/ReYXv1 Feast March Ceremony
Edward S. Curtis
Library of Congress: http://1.usa.gov/Ujsazq Si Wa Wata Wa
Edward S. Curtis
Library of Congress: http://1.usa.gov/VoCFCw Buffalo Dancers
Edward S. Curtis
Library of Congress: http://1.usa.gov/TPmvmk - Even photographs can be altered and misconstrued. Should information from Curtis' collection be used in descriptions of Native Americans, or should it be discredited? - What factors lead to differing interpretations of historical events? - Can an unbiased version of history ever be produced? Or will human bias always be present? back to the mural Much of the information surrounding the commissioning of the murals have been lost to time, making it difficult to ascertain a thorough interpretation of the work.
- What factors should be considered when viewing the mural?
- How could a historian's and a Native American's perspective of the mural differ? SOCIAL STUDIES NATIVE AMERICAN INVOLVEMENT IN U.S. WARS 1941 1861 1812 1775 1754 french and indian war revolutionary war war of 1812 civil war world war II Compare perspectives of the French and Indian War, which lasted from 1754 - 1763 and was a precursor to the American Revolution. http://bit.ly/RnsClV What factors did Native American tribes consider when choosing sides in the American Revolutionary War? http://1.usa.gov/UfgHlC Again, American Indian tribes must choose a side. Read a short essay that explains the War of 1812 from the Native American perspective. http://to.pbs.org/ZbDaqq After the Treaty and Removal era, how did Native Americans respond when war tore apart the United States? http://bit.ly/STBSN1 The World Wars marked a shift in Native American participation. See how Native Americans played an essential role in WWII. http://bit.ly/VREpdE back to the mural In US Wars, Native American tribes fought for the side that offered them land, autonomy, and protection of their ways of life. As a group, they rarely sided with the 'winners.' Several figures of the mural signed treaties with the American government.
How did their involvement on the 'wrong' side of wars affect US treatment of the tribes? EPIDEMIOLOGY SCIENCE 3 2 1 Click on the video to learn how the immune system fights bacteria. Learn about infectious diseases and the way they affect the immune system. http://1.usa.gov/TPvmnP Apply what you have learned to investigate a cholera epidemic. http://1.usa.gov/UUpGMw back to the mural Native Americans had no natural immunity to common European diseases.

How did that affect tribes and their perception of European Americans?

http://bit.ly/VCNqAY SCIENCE INVASIVE SPECIES back to the mural Horses had not been present in North America for thousands of years when they were reintroduced by Europeans. Their presence revolutionized Plains Indian culture, though now wild horses are running unchecked through some western states. Research the debate about the recent efforts to control mustang population. MATH PROBABILITY LANGUAGE ARTS STORYTELLING back to the mural SPECIAL THANKS SURVEY THANK YOU FOR VIEWING OUR RESOURCE ABOUT THE KIOWA 6 AND THE ART AT THE JUDICIAL CENTER IN OKLAHOMA CITY.

WE WOULD APPRECIATE ANY FEEDBACK YOU WOULD LIKE TO GIVE BY TAKING THE FOLLOWING SURVEY: http://bit.ly/YGbR1Z Introduced Species: The Threat to Biodiversity & What Can Be Done
http://bit.ly/X8z0ch Alien Species Reconsidered: Finding a Value in Non-Natives
http://bit.ly/X8z5gf http://bit.ly/X8yUS6 The Columbian Exchange was a transfer of crops, animals, and diseases that occurred when the Americas were discovered and colonized by Europeans. Read more about the exchange of nonnative species here: The term 'invasive species' refers to a nonnative plant or animal that has been introduced to a new ecosystem, sometimes with disastrous consequences. Conservationists disagree about the ramifications of invasive species. Compare two perspectives by reading the following articles. back to the mural http://bit.ly/10zZR9I probability pond plinko toads and vines http://bit.ly/10zZRX9 http://bit.ly/10zZRq8 Learn the basics of probability. Use probability to solve problems. See how variables can change the probability of an outcome. Many current perceptions of Native American tribes are related to casinos and gambling. Due to laws governing reservations, tribes are able to build casinos on their land. The money earned helps support the tribe, its people, and even the surrounding area. More about that here: http://bit.ly/X8Si1i

Yet many people do not realize that American Indians have a long history of playing both games of chance and skill: http://bit.ly/X8T5iI http://bit.ly/VrgU8P Watch the video to learn the five elements every story needs. 1 3 2 View a TED Talk by Ben Saunders about his solo-trek across the Arctic Ocean. - What was most compelling about Ben's story?
- Why was his account so interesting?

More TED Stories: http://bit.ly/XdPYGj http://to.pbs.org/XdUvZs What were the five elements of Ben's talk? Native Americans have a strong tradition of storytelling. It is how they teach tribal history, beliefs, and information. Listen to four accounts by Native Americans.
- How do their stories differ in style and content?
- Do they have any commonalities? http://bit.ly/XdQKmN After reading examples of Native American legends and listening to the stories provided by PBS, present an event from your life in the American Indian storytelling style.

Be sure to include the five elements of a story, and include components to captivate the audience. For more tips, check out the Write Practice's website:
http://bit.ly/XdWugr (20 min.) RELEVANT PLACES First, try to beat the odds. how to win a car http://bit.ly/SwZGY7 Then watch the following explanation video.
Also, read how pigeons are smarter than people. http://1.usa.gov/Sx02hg Woolaroc is a museum and wildlife preserve, created by Frank Phillips in 1925 as a ranch retreat.

The museum has an extensive collection of Native American art and artifacts. http://bit.ly/Sxloew The Gilcrease Museum is located in Tulsa, Oklahoma.

It is renowned for its Western art collection, including vast amounts of American Indian art and artifacts. http://bit.ly/V51ILT We would like to extend our everlasting gratitude to several staff members of the Oklahoma History Center for their work in uncovering the mystery of the Kiowa mural. Jeff Briley and Matt Reed gave wonderful insight into the identity of the figures, while Mary Lee's research into the past of the mural was incredibly enlightening. We are so excited to finally have a thorough interpretation of the mural!

Also, we would like to recognize Justice Yvonne Kauger for her tireless work in creating and expanding the Native American art collection.

Thank you! About the Collaborating Artist: Lauren Miller is a visual artist residing in Oklahoma City. She developed these art projects to dovetail with the Judicial Center mural. Currently, she works with graphite and paint on wood, but has been known to dabble in oils and textiles. To contact her, email lotevenstar{at}msn.com more about the Kiowa artists: http://bit.ly/149pX29 http://bit.ly/149q39Z The Jacobson House - Oklahoma Today, 23.1 -
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