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Transcript of #socglobdev
north and south (and west)
developed, undeveloped and underdeveloped
MEDCs, LEDCs, LLEDCs
the bottom billion The economic well-being of a society is usually measured either by Gross Domestic Product (GDP) or by Gross National Product (GNP). Both measure the total value of goods and services produced in an economy in a year, but the latter also includes net income from abroad and is seen as the more useful.
GDP is usually given as a 'per capita' (per person in the population) figure to allow for differences in size of populations between countries, and is given in US dollars. GDP figures reveal the dramatic scale of inequality between the developed and developing worlds. the Human Development Index (HDI), produced by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Each country is given an HDI score which is calculated by considering what the UNDP takes to be the three most important aspects of development, covering both economic and social aspects:
a) Material standard of living (measured by GDP per capita).
b) Education (measured by the proportion of the population of relevant age who are in education, and by levels of literacy).
c) Health (measured by life expectancy).
Each country's score is between 0 and 1, with 1 being the highest. Countries can then be ranked in order of HDI score. The 2007/8 Human Development Report, based on statistics for 2005, showed Iceland at the top, with an HDI index of 0.968. The lowest ranking country of the 177 listed was Sierra Leone on 0.336. The HDI also classifies countries as having high, medium or low human development. In 2007/8, 70 countries were classified as having high human development and 22 as having low human development, with the remaining 85 having medium human development. All the countries with low human development were in Africa. In 1972 the King of Bhutan, in response to criticisms of his country's slow economic growth, proposed a plan for development that rejected the pursuit of economic growth as a good in itself and reflected Bhutan's Buddhist values. Gross National Happiness also takes into account spiritual and psychological aspects of development. The International Institute of Management is attempting a global Gross National Happiness Survey measuring development in Bhutan GNP
Criticisms Rostow Stage One: Traditional societies based on subsistence farming. Traditional values hold back social change. Stage Two: Preconditions for take off. Western values and practices begin to take hold, establishing conditions that are necessary for development. western intervention and investment/aid serves as the fuel Stage Three: Take off. The economy grows as modern values and practices pay off. Begins to produce on a large scale. Stage Four: Drive to maturity. Benefits continue and investment in education, health and mass media. Becoming modern Stage Five: Age of high mass consumption and high standards of living. Most people living in cities gemeinschaft gesellschaft +motors of development Frank Slavery Colonialism the world capitalist system is organised as an inter locking chain consisting of metropolis or core nations that benefit from the economic surplus of satellite or peripheral counties Wallerstein Need to look at the global system rather than at the country level. Capitalism and the global 'class system' or core, semi periphery and periphery transcend national boundaries. Societies evolve through predictable stages towards modernity. For Durkheim this was from mechanical to organic, for Tonnies it was gemeinschaft (community) to gesellschaft (society) little wealth cultural barriers such as patriarchy, ascription and collectivism profits are reinvested. indigenous investors take risk and wealth trickles down population lives in urban rather than rural areas, work in skilled office jobs and enjoy a comfortable lifestyle organised around conspicuous consumption education (Lerner)
mass media (Inkeles)
urbanisation (Hoselitz) ecological and social damage
educating the kleptocrats
needs outside forces
not culture specific
ethnocentric vs Variation in Western tastes have negative effect on developing economies
Transnational exploitation by TNC (Shell and Union Carbide for example)
Processing is done in Western factories
West can impose limits on imports
Prices set by the buyer
Commodity dependancy Break away from dependancy
Produce own consumer goods however, dependancy is difficult to define, there have been benefits to developing nations including infrastructure. World Systems Theory solutions the core semi periphery periphery we exploit the rest of the world (USA and Western Europe) emerging markets with production contracted out (Brazil, Russia, India, China) raw materials, cheap labour, emerging markets (Africa) the problems metropolis satellite cultural globalisation globalists Changes in the concept of time and space
Economic markets and production in different countries
Increasing cultural interaction
Increasingly shared problems including Economic, Environmental, Health and Terrorism traditionalists transformationalists theories responses Defining Globalisation communication technologies and mass travel allows us to communication quickly interdependent because of the growth in international trade developments in mass media we can now encounter and consume new ideas and experiences from all over the world. It also means... globalisation is having real consequences for the way people and organisations operate and nation states and local culture is being homogenized. It could be positive (hyperglobalists) or negative (pessimistic globalists) globalisation is not occuring. It's a myth, at best an exaggeration. It's been going on for years. middle ground. it has been exaggerated but it's foolish to reject it out of hand. it's a complex set of interconnected relationships neo-marxist traditionalists NIDL World Trade TNC McDonaldisation Frobel: there has been a substantial movement of capital from the industrial west to the developing world. Many developing nations set up free trade zones to attract TNC (transnational corporations). The developing country will offer incentives such as grants, tax breaks, few controls and low status of the work force. Can be both positive and negative. TNCs have become a driving force behind economic globalisation wielding more power than many nation states. 51 of the 100 largest economies in the world are TNCs rather than countries The WTO seeks to govern global trade. It has increased trade from $17.5 trillion to $3000 trillion. Marxists and global pessimists claim that the trade rules are unfair and biased against developing countries as they are pressured to open their economies. Ritzer: the principles of McDonalds are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society as well as the rest of the world. These are: efficiency, calculability, predictability and control. This is dehumanising for workers and consumers. Cultural goods such as TVs and mobile phones have had a globalising effect on the world. it's happening but it's an extension of global capitalist exploitation the international economy has not gained dominance over national economic policies hyperglobalists neo-marxists diffuses different cultural styles around the world and creates new fashions so cultural diversity and pluralism will be the norm. the world's media is concentrated in the hands of a few media companies. These corporations are likely to disseminate primarily western forms of culture. Some commentators refer to this as coca-colonisation. Hyperglobalists and Neo Marxists suggest that culture is one way only, it assumes people are cultural dopes and it under estimates the strength of local culture. the transformationalists Should we be worried that there are a billion people on Facebook? yes no a bit defining development social development sustainable development The Brandt Report is the report written by the Independent Commission, first chaired by Willy Brandt (the former German Chancellor) in 1980, to review international development issues. The result of this report provided an understanding of drastic differences in the economic development for both the North and South hemispheres of the world.
A new century nears, and with it the prospects of a new civilization.
Could we not begin to lay the basis for that new community with reasonable relations among all people and nations, and to build a world in which sharing, justice, freedom and peace might prevail? (Willy Brandt 1983)
The Brandt Report suggests primarily that a great chasm in standard of living exists along the North-South divide and there should therefore be a large transfer of resources from developed to developing countries. The countries North of the divide are extremely wealthy due to their successful trade in manufactured goods, whereas the countries South of the divide suffer poverty due to their trade in intermediate goods, where the export incomes are low. the Brandt Line dependency theory Globalisation, modernisation theory origins theories of marxist functionalist criticisms origins (1979) development Aid Tonnies defining aid 'Aid. refers to any flow of resources from developed countries to the developing world, which may take the form of a financial grant or material gift that does not have to be paid back or a loan with interest. Bilateral aid Multilateral aid Commercial banks NGOs Emergency aid governments in the developed world giving aid to governments in the developing world. involves the UK donating capital (43% of the DFID budget in 2007/8) to agencies such as the World Bank, the IMF, the European commission and the UN Lend money to developing countries at commercial rates of interest. This is humanitarian relief that is raised in response to specific circumstances NGOs include charities such as Oxfam, the Red Cross, VSO and Save the Children, which aim to raise donations from the general public by raising awareness of problems in the developing world. Trade for against Urbanisation Environment Identity and Conflict Employment Education Health Demographic Change Gender as Aspects of Development