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APUSH Period B1 - American Constitution

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Christine Kim

on 22 October 2012

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Transcript of APUSH Period B1 - American Constitution

American Constitution Enlightenment Thinkers MONTESQUIEU JOHN LOCKE THOMAS PAINE ROUSSEAU MAGNA CARTA MAYFLOWER
COMPACT Precolonial Documents Charter of Virginia Charter of Massachusetts Bay Early American State Constitutions Colonial & Post-Colonial Documents 1215, King John Influenced the development of law Define the role of government Limit the power of the king/central government Compare Contrast Limit the power of the central government
Limit the power of the Executive Branch Provide more rights to individual people/nobles
Provide more rights to individual states (9th, 10th Amendments) Magna Carta: government under a monarchy
Constitution: government under democratically-elected president Constitution: Resulted in the Creation of the Bill of Rights Signed on November 11, 1620 First governing document of Plymouth Colony, Massachusetts Bay Social Contract signed by 41 men desiring shared protection under common government Compare Contrast United people under a central government Individuals have to give up rights for
common protection Constitution: on the basis of majority rule & democratically elected leader
Mayflower Compact: 44 out of 101 people signed Both created by wealthy males; no voice for females Constitution: helped to support both men and women; equality
Mayflower Compact: excluded people of not the same religious sect King James granted a proprietary charter to the two competing branches of the Virginia Company, 1606 (First Charter) Plymouth Company was allowed to establish a colony between Chesapeake Bay and the current U.S.~Canada border The London Company was permitted to establish between Cape Fear and Long Island Sound, and also owned a large portion of Atlantic and inland Canada The two companies were not permitted to establish colonies within one hundred miles of each other Only purpose: to propagate religion
"to spread Christian faith" Granted those born in the colonies all the rights of British citizens elsewhere in the New World Compare Contrast Virginia Charter: Established on the sole basis of religion Constitution: Limits the Executive Branch from being able to buy and sell land with foreign countries
Virginia Charter: Decided land where people could settle Gave the central government (Executive Branch; Monarch) the
full authority Virginia Charter: Limited Religious Freedom Designated national boundaries Granted by William and
Mary of Orange, 1629 Massachusetts Bay Company receives a charter from the Crown Clearly stated the government of the company & the extent of its authority;
the management of the company would remain in England Puritans took the first step in transforming Massachusetts Bay from a trading company into a commonwealth Compare Contrast Gave full power and authority to make/establish orders, laws, statutes
and ordinances, directions and instructions John Winthrop: first leader of Massachusetts Bay Colony 1630 Self Government of the People Massachusetts Bay: primarily addressed merchants and landed gentry Puritans in the company who settled in New England would retain control of company management John Locke was an Enlightenment period intellectual who wrote Two Treatises on Government (1690) to justify England’s Glorious Revolution of 1688. Natural rights and Representative government. Declaration of Independence said, "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness".

Two Treatises on Government by John Locke said, "life, health, Liberty, or possessions". “all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights” “That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed” People are not social beings by nature and that primitive people had no reason to hurt each other, but civilization brought out these evils (aggression and egotism) Rousseau idealized democracy in which all people would participate and be involved reducing special interest groups Paine is English-born American political activists among the first advocates for colonies to declare independence from Britain Common Sense attacked monarchical government and the alleged virtues of the British constitution. 1) It is government's duty to protect natural rights of life, liberty, and property.

2)The government had the responsibility to establish order .

3)The government must act upon the consent of the governed.

4) If the ruler or body of government had broken its contract, the people have the right to rebel. Locke's Influence Impact on the Declaration
of Independence. Thomas Jefferson once quoted, " I consider [Locke] as the greatest man that have ever lived, without any exception, and as having laid the foundation of those superstructures which have been raised in the Physical and Moral sciences" Paine's
Common
Sense 50 page pamphlet that attack King George and the monarchy It also opposed any reconciliation with Great Britain, voicing his disapproval on the Olive Branch petition. Paine's great contribution was in initiating a public debate about independence, which had previously been rather muted. He concentrated on promoting liberty and preventing tyranny.
He also promoted balance of power. Genevan philosopher who influenced both American and French Revolution Montesquieu argued for the separation of power, so that one governing body would not have unlimited power "The Social Contract"
(Le contrat social) in 1762 U.S. Constitution combined the proposal by Montesquieu and the idea of checks and balances by James Madison and made the legislative, the judicial, and the executive branch. Here, Rousseau stated that the sacred and absolute “general will” reflected the common interests of the people. French philosophers of the Enlightenment period Virginia Constitution New Jersey Constitution Supported same rights as the Virginia Constitution against the British Representation in relation to population Bicameral Legislature Size of Executive Body undetermined; elected and removable by Congress Legislature can override the states' power Ratified by the people Compare Contrast Derived from the states and based on equal votes for each state Unicameral Legislature Bicameral Legislature Supreme Court members get life-tenure in office Virginia Constitution: Represented by Population
National Constitution: Population & Standard Voting Judiciary Branch has no power over states Offered freedoms not provided by British
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