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European Renaissance and Reformation, 1300–1600
Transcript of European Renaissance and Reformation, 1300–1600
Idea started in the Renaissance and it basically stated that humans have value and worth.
It focused on human potential and achievements.
During the Medieval Ages the thought was only God could do good but as the transition to the Renaissance the new thought was that people could do good.
humanism was the start of secularism"worldly" because you were becoming more independent from god and more reliant on the world
What is humanism?
Ignatius of Loyola
Renaissance actually means "rebirth"in french and reffers to a rebirth of art and learning.
It was a period after the middle ages.
It was the start of the "Modern world. "
It was the time peiod of 1300-1600
During this time there was a renewed interest in learning about the achievements of the ancient Greeks and Romans
It began in Italy in Tuscany(Cental Italy)
The Renaissance began mostly because of the crusades (1096-1291) during these military expeditions as the europeans came in contact with different cultures. Another factor was the rise of commerce and banking in the independent empires of northern Italy, including Florence, Rome, Venice, and Milan. This started the patron idea where one could support the arts with there money. One famous patron and ruler was the Medici family.
The Renaissance in northern Europe lagged behind the Renaissance in Italy because of the Hundred Years' War.
What was the Renaissance?
He was considered a renaissance man because he was a painter,sculptor, inventor, and scientist.
The first scientist to perform human dissections of the body to study anatomy. Which was frowned upon by Catholic Church.
Painted very realistic pictures such as the Mona Lisa and Last Supper.
Before the time of leonardo art was flat and unrealistic but because of his anatomy experiments he could better see the human body and his artwork started a new type of art with depth and realism. He actually discovered depth by using a mirror he did this by holding up a mirror to the object he wanted to draw from the distance he wanted to draw it from and instead of drawing the image the same size of the actal object he drew it the size he saw in the mirror.
In his Two-dementional art he used perspective.
Most artist like Leanardo would be sponsored by a wealthy patron.
He was the founder of the Jesuits or the "Society of Jesus." He was a basque nobleman and soldier who in 1521 suffered a devastating leg wound that ended his military career. While recuperating he ead spirirtual works and esolved to put energy into religious work. In 1540 he founde the Jesuits.
The Jesuit society demands four vows of its members: poverty, chastity, obedience to Christ, and obedience to the Pope.
The purpose of the Jesuits is the propagation of the Catholic faith by any means possible.
The Jesuits recieved instruction not only in theology and philosophy but also in classical languages, literature, history and science. As a result to that preparation they made effective missionaries for the Catholic Church.
The education of children missionaries was the principal goal of the Jesuits.
In 1517 a German monk posed a challenge to the Roman Catholic Church. he protested against the church's sale of indulgence which was when the clergy sold pardons that released people from peforming penalties for thier sins.
He wrote Ninety-Five Theses which was a a printed work off his thoughts against the church. His works spread instantly with the help of the printing press.
He did not nail his work to the church door in Wittenberg it was just rumor.
During the 1530's dissidents known as Protestants -organized movements in France,England, the Low Countries, and even Italy and Spain. By midcentury he started the Protestant Reformation.
Luther then attacked the church for a wide range of abuses such as the closure of monasteries, the translation of the bible from latin to vernacular languages, and an end to priestly authority (Pope).
The edict of worms was a official measure that made it illegal to give him food or shelter.
The term Protestant comes from the name given some German princes who protested against joining forces with the pope against Luther's ideas.
Jhon Calvin took part in this reformation and in france he started to spread his ideas. He was a french lawyer, who in the 1530's converted to protestant christianity.
One of his major teachings was predestination which ment that before you were put on earth you were all ready made and God had already decided if your going to Heaven or Hell.
Calvin composed an influential treatise, Institutes of the Christian Religion(first published in 1536).
Because the frenchsought to suppress protestants, Calvin slipped across the border to Geneva and he organized a protestant community. Geneva became a model protestant community and also a missionary center.
Luthers idea that says humans can not earn a place in heaven influenced Jhon Calvin.
There were another type of protestants but theywere called Anabaptist because they believe in rebaptizing when there old enough to choose themselves. The name Anabaptist is from the Greek for baptize again.
Jhon Knox traveled from scotlandto Geneva and he When he returned to otland in 1559, Knox put Calvin’s ideas to work. Each community church was governed by a group of laymen called elders or Presbyters. Followers of knox became known as Presbyterians.
In the 1560s, Protestant nobles led by Knox made Calvinism Scotland’s official religion. They also deposed their Catholic ruler, Mary Queen of Scots, in favor of her infant son, James.
Over the years, however, mant of them have softened Calvin's strict teachings.
The printing press was invented by Johann Gutenberg
The first full- sized book gutenburg was printed in Maniz, Germany in the 1450's. this was the first Catholic (latin) bible printed
The printing press made it possible for a person to produce "vernacular" works which means theycan write in local, rather than classical, language.
The printing press started to print secular "worldly" works
The printing press printed utopia meaning ideal place and the author was thomas more, Hamlet by William Shakespeare, The Praise to Folly by Desiderius Erasmus .
The head of the English Catholic Church was Henry VIII.
The main reason Henry VIII split from the catholic churh was his desire for a male heir (He wanted to marry Anne Boleyn but after she couldn't produce a child he had her beheaded).
The first of Henry VIII's children to rule england was Edward VI and the last was Elizabeth I.
The Act of Supremacy made the king, not the pope, the head of the English Church(It was passed during the reign of Henry VIII)
Catherine of Aragon was the wife of Henry the 8th, the mother of Queen Mary the 1st, and Aunt to Charles the 5th, Holy Roman Emperor
The catholic church rarely practiced Annul it means "to set aside." and refers to a marriageT
The peace of Ausburg ended a war between the catholics and Protestant German Princes
The council of trent agreed that the catholics interpretation of the bible is final.
In England, the king was declared to be the head of the Anglican Church.